Ашкинази Леонид Александрович
Кое-что об истории электронных приборов

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  • © Copyright Ашкинази Леонид Александрович (leonid2047@gmail.com)
  • Обновлено: 10/06/2011. 80k. Статистика.
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       Кое-что об истории электронных приборов
      
       История техники, ооо... (закатывает глаза) это тема... Вот что бы я хотел попробовать преподавать... Историю техники можно представить как историю объектов и их взаимодействий, а любые объекты - это класс. За то ли одним, то ли двумя исключениями - Вселенной и ее гипотетического Конструктора. Итак, что такое электронные лампы, об истории коих мне захотелось что-то изречь? Попытка дать определение математического уровня строгости обречена, и когда-то это оказалось одним из моих жизненных потрясений.
      
       Ибо до какого-то момента математика с ее строгостью и техника с ее "какая разница, как это называется, если оно работает" сосуществовали в моем мозгу мирно. Иногда встречались, выпивали, закусывали и - и ничего. Более того, когда я где-то в 90-е вознамерился написать книгу про электронные лампы, у меня почему-то не возникло вопроса "а что это такое". Молодой был, да? Ну, там случился полиграфический кризис, неустойчивость цен на бумагу, не до математических определений... Когда текст был восстановлен и усовершенствован (уже в новом веке), то вопрос опять же не возник. А встал он во весь свой, наверное, гигантский рост примерно в 2008 году, когда я начал преподавать метрологию. Почему? Да потому, что рыба не знает, что живет в воде, и разве что рыбий Соломон мог задуматься над вопросом, "что такое вода". А я вырос в воде - в мире проводников, полупроводников и диэлектриков, мире токов, напряжений и мощностей, трансформаторов и генераторов Ван-де-Граафа, мире частот, длин волн, скважностей, модуляций... мире вакуумных, полупроводниковых и газоразрядных... мире тепла и света в полумраке, в мире электронных ламп.
      
       А вот когда пришлось преподавать метрологию, и я узнал, что кроме вольтметра и "померь-ка накальное поточнее", есть всего этого "определения"... И с точки зрения - нет, не математика, но хоть физика... с его точки зрения, это не определения, а бред. И не легкий, как муратти, а гораздо тяжелее. Последовала реакция здорового организма, которая чуть не кончилась отторжением, но - живуч человек, живуче существо без перьев с широким ногтем! Хотя левое веко до сих пор дергается.
      
       Попробуем обойтись если не определением прибора, то хоть определением принципа действия. Электронная лампа, а точнее, электронно-вакуумная лампа или электронно-вакуумный прибор (ЭВП), - это прибор, изделие, объект, в котором есть разности потенциалов, есть дрейф электронов (ток) в вакууме и есть то, ради чего в тиши ночи скворчит насос - пребразование тока или напряжения, а с точки зрения потребителя - энергии или информации.
      
       Во, дали определение, хоть не факт, что оно нам всегда будет полезным. Например, если там не вакуум, а разреженный газ, но разряда нет, а есть лишь компенсация заряда? Первые электронные лампы именно такими и были. А если поток электронов не просто в вакууме, а в порах пористого твердого тела, то есть в порах так называемого "оксидного катода"? Был и такой прибор - "вакуумный полевой триод" (А.А.Головченко).
      
       Далее. А что, если пересечь пространство редко расположенными тонкими металлическими или полупроводящими нитями? Мы получим интересную среду с промежуточной, причем нелинейной, проводимостью, "внутренней" вторичной эмиссией, то есть размножением электронов, промежуточной длиной свободного пробега и относительно легко "разогреваемым" электронным газом (точнее, разогреваемой его вакуумной компонентой). Кстати, такая среда сможет использоваться и как источник света - за счет излучения нитей под электронной бомбардировкой.
      
       Но хватит фантазий на сегодня. Так или иначе, а что такое "электронные лампы", знают все. Высунься в окно, подзови пацана, вон того, видишь - гоняет мяч из тряпок (настоящий - несбыточная мечта), ключ от квартиры на веревочке на шее болтается, пацан расскажет тебе, что такое электронная лампа и где купить. На дворе двадцатые годы прошлого века, и знание еще кажется этому пацану чем-то важным...
      
      
       0x08 graphic

      
       Фото из музея http://rrl-museum.cqham.ru/
      
       Итак, история электронных ламп. Первая мысль - книги. И немедленно - облом. Поиск книг на запросы "Electron Tubes" и "Vacuum Tubes" с 1971 года плюс отдельно - просмотр всех крупных сайтов
      
       www.tubedepot.com
       www.vacuumtubes.net
       www.tubeman.com
       www.audiotubes.com
       www.thetubestore.com
       www.vacuumtubesinc.com
       www.tubeworld.com
       www.worldtubeaudio.com
       www.tubesandmore.com
      
       приводит к удручающе короткому списку
      
       Gerald F. J. Tyne "Saga of the Vacuum Tube" 1994
       S.Okamura "History of Electron Tubes" 1994
       HJ Van Der Bijl "The Thermionic Vacuum Tube - Physics and Electronics" 2003
       Samuel Y.Liao "Microwave Electron-Tube Devices" 1988
      
       При этом собственно истории посвящены только первые две, причем первая очень интересна, но кошмарно иллюстрирована и последние рассмотренные лампы - еще довоенные, а вторая - вообще перевод лишь первого тома из японского семитомника. Так что если какой-нибудь культурный фонд захочет потратить тридцать тысяч австралийских или канадских долларов на издание истории `лектронных ламп, то дорога открыта. Я готов взяться за эту работу, даже если доллары будут американские. Начать надо, естественно, с полного перевода профессора Окамуры, а там видно будет. Любопытно было бы издать например, три параллельных "взгляда" - японский, американский и российский. По первому тому Окамуры (японский у меня не идеальный) могу заключить, что взгляды эти сильно и интересно различаются.
      
       Следующий уровень поисков - журналы. На перечисленных выше сайтах ссылок на специализированные ламповые журналы нет, хотя поиск в Сети показывает значительное количество интересных ресурсов (в приложении приведено три списка источников). Так что найти интересные статьи по электронным лампам можно, но это была бы немаленькая работа. И вполне возможно, что большинство статей на эти темы так и осталось в бумажной эпохе.
      
       Теперь музеи. В Москве есть музей
       http://rrl-museum.cqham.ru/ ,
       в который я вожу школьников, им нравится, и музей
       http://www.rkk-museum.ru/ ,
       на сайте коего, кроме всего прочего, много интересных материалов о радиомузеях, о музейном и радио-музейном деле. Кстати, этот музей - редкий пример того, что можно сделать, объединив ясное и оригинальное понимание проблемы, знание материальной стороны вопроса и деньги.
      
       Если же мы нырнем в Сеть, то обнаружим, что серьезных материалов по истории электронных ламп мало. Мне показались интересными следующие
       http://www.cqham.ru/oldradio/tubes_r.htm
       http://www.oldradioclub.ru
       http://qrz.ru/articles/category/7.html
       http://radiobooka.ru/lampov_teh/197-aleksej-pogorilyj-yelektronnye-lampy.html
       http://www.qrz.ru/articles/article250.html
       причем концентрация материалов высока, искать интересное надо прежде всего именно на этих сайтах.
      
       Материалов по истории полупроводниковых приборов больше, вот какие показались мне наиболее интересными (наверняка я многое пропустил).
       http://vivovoco.rsl.ru/VV/JOURNAL/VIET/LIGHT.HTM
       http://www.oldradioclub.ru/issues/issue031.htm
       http://qrz.ru/articles/category/7.html
       http://www.ua1zh.narod.ru/sprav/stat/old_tranz.htm
       http://www.leninburg.com/trans/trans.htm
       http://www.ihst.ru/projects/sohist/papers/ihst/2004/schuka.htm
       http://www.155la3.ru/index.htm
       www.kit-e.ru/assets/files/pdf/2006_09_198.pdf
       http://www.qrz.ru/articles/article258.html
       http://statehistory.ru/1320/Razrabotka-pervykh-tranzistorov-v-SSSR/
       http://www.oldradioclub.ru/issues/issue363.htm
       http://www.155la3.ru/60_years_ussr_transistor.htm
       http://www.electronics.ru/journal/article/363
      
       "Теперь позвольте пару слов без протокола", как пел Высоцкий. История техники - это две переплетающиеся истории: идей и продуктов. Причем с одной стороны история техники граничит с историей физики - кто что первый заметил и кто что первый понял. С другой стороны она граничит с экономикой, социологией и т.п. - как это изделие повлияло на людей и общество, на экономику и социальную психологию.
      
       Каждая сторона этой многостадийной истории (физика-заметил, физика-понял, техника-идея, техника-продукт, социология-влияние, экономика-влияние) требует профессионализма. Первые три стадии вообще оставляют не так много следов, надо лезть в архивы и старые журналы, не все еще оцифровано и выложено в Сеть. Последующие три стадии несколько более очевидны в смысле источников и лучше документированы, но зато они требуют более широкого мышления, а это ничуть не легче. Это даже хуже, потому что халтура в подборе фактов или их понимании очевидна (особенно, когда об истории берется писать невинное создание, не знающее школьной физики, зато хорошо владеющее развязной "журналистской" речью). А вот недостаточный профессионализм в экономике или социологии не столь ясен читателю. Тем более, что современный язык позволяет легко вводить в заблуждение собеседника. Если некто А. разработал теорию до какой-то точки, а некто В. пять лет спустя независимо разработал теорию и довел ее до более далекой точки, то очень просто написать, что "В. развил теорию, созданную А." И прямого вранья нет, и читатель понимает именно так, как того хочет автор. Подобное жульничество встречается часто.
      
       Распространенным способом писать об истории является смешение этих вопросов, особенно когда хочется доказать, что "Россия - родина слонов". Потому что здесь сделано, естественно, немало интересных изобретений, и если вдобавок про что-то одно писать, кто заметил, про другое - кто понял, про третье - кто предложил и т. д., да еще не слишком тщательно относиться к источникам, то легко показать, что автор, который знал все еще до того, как стал изучать вопрос, был, естественно, прав, и в России сделано все. Нежелание работать и желание с пеной у рта поутверждать свое приводит к парадоксальной и огорчительной ситуации, когда материалы об изобретении Лосева находят в российских архивах американские исследователи, и с восторгом об этом пишут - как же, нашли интересненькое! - а некоторые из нас предпочитают разглагольствовать. "Обидно, Зин", как пел опять же, Высоцкий.
      
       -------------------------------
      
       Приложение.
      
       Сборка линков на зарубежные сайты, касающиеся ламп.
      
       ИСТОЧНИК N 1
      
       http://www.the-planet.org/links.html
       Vacuum Tube Links
       Tube Data and Info:
      -- Duncan Amps - Tube datasheet library - also download the power supply design tool - great software for free!
      -- WPS Electon Tube Database - lots of obscure tube data
       Dynaco:
      -- Dynaco Schematics - A link back to my page of every vintage Dynaco Tube Schematic
      -- Dynaco CDROM - A link back to ordering information for the Dynaco CDROM
      -- Greg Dunn's Dynaco Page - Greg did a great job putting together the History of Dynaco, as well as having a very complete listing of other Dynaco Links
       DIY Audio:
      -- Bottlehead - Great kits at attractive prices, and lots of parafeed stuff.
      -- Claudio Bonavolta - some nice schematics
      -- RCA's RC10 - Thanks to Tim Reese
      -- Emissions Lab - mostly in Japanese, but great photos
      -- Mach Mat - many tube related schematics
      -- The FI Primer - The bible of DIY Audio!
      -- Aprilsound - Importer's of Tango transformers, and some great schematics
      -- Audio Design Guide - Andrea Ciuffoli's site with some nice material, but way too many banners!
      -- Tim Reese's Home Page - everything from Reptiles to Triodes!
      -- Line Preamp Project - A nicely written article on linestages
      -- PAE - Great information about Russian high Mu Tubes (6C45, 6H30 etc) including a single tube amp, and 211 circuit
      -- Steve Bench's Page - A "must visit" page of tube audio design!
      -- Bob Danielak - Bob's DC-Darling has to be one of the best sounding "micro" amps ever
      -- Roscoe Primrose - 2A3, 45 and 5842 designs
      -- Triode Audio - A french site with 845 and 833 designs
       Transformer Vendors:
      -- Electra-Print Audio Co. - Jack Elliano's fantastic transformers!
      -- EIFL - Japanese exporter of Tango and Tamura transformers, Diatone Speakers etc.
      -- One Electron - John Atwood's Transformers and Schematics
      -- Magnequest - Sold via Bottlehead or Handmade Electronics
      -- Hammond - Budget transformers that perform surprisingly well
       Tube Vendors:
      -- Angela Instruments
      -- Antique Electronic Supply
      -- Triode Electronics
      -- Electron Tube Enterprises
      -- Snd Tube Sales
      -- Tube World
      -- Vacuum Tubes,Inc.
       Vintage Audio Sites:
      -- SDS Labs Page
      -- Roger Russell, McIntosh Lab
      -- CURCIO AUDIO ENGINEERING
      -- Classic H.H.Scott Pages
      -- The Heathkit Virtual Museum-HiFi & Stereo
      -- EICO Home Page
       Magazines:
      -- Vacuum Tube Valley - Vintage audio at it's best!
      -- Glassware and The Tube Cad Journal First rate software and reading
      -- Sound Practices - Sadly missed....
       PCB Resources:
      -- Press 'n Peel - A quick toner transfer method for making PC boards at home
      -- Express PCB - Quick and inexpensive service for prototyping PC boards, free CAD software
       Tube Testers:
      -- Pagett's Hickok Pages - Illustrated Guide to Hickok testers, Calibration and Service Information
      -- Cardmatic - Aaron's AN/USM-118 (Hickok "Cardmatic" 1234) Page
      -- Nolan Lee's Redneck Page - Nolan has taken up the task of typing in the tester data for many of the Military Testers including I-177, TV2,3,4,7 and 10 into Excel Worksheets. What a huge Job!
      -- Straub's Tube Page - Huge selection of tester data for many of the Hickok types
      -- Klausmobile Tube Tester - Complete plans for a tube tester and curve tracer.
      -- Tubewizard - Hickok Sales and Repair
      -- John's Cardmatic Page - History of the Cardmatic's with great photos.
       Solid State <gasp> Audio:
      -- Elliot Sound Products - Many audio projects, some with available pcb's
       -----------------------------------
      
       ИСТОЧНИК N 2
      
       http://www.nutshellhifi.com/Linkstxt.html
      
       Vacuum Tube Valley
       Website: http://www.vacuumtube.com/
       Vacuum Tube Valley is a beautifully published and illustrated magazine, and deeply aware of the long and distinguished history of vacuum tubes. The editor, Charlie Kittleson, wisely avoids the SE vs PP religious war that has divided the vacuum-tube enthusiasts, and seriously compares well-restored "Golden Age" equipment with modern DIY enthusiast efforts. But the real glory of the magazine are the superb vacuum-tube retrospectives ... 2A3, 845, 300B, 6SN7, 6L6, and all the "classics." You may not agree with some of the subjective preferences of the writers (par for the course in audio writing), but there's no argument about the historical research or the quality of the artwork.
       Disclaimer: I wrote the previous paragraph back in the last century, before Charlie offered me the job as Technical Editor of the magazine (no, I wasn't brown-nosing with the previous piece, I've been a subscriber since the first issue). I still feel that way about the magazine - and maybe one of these years Charlie will start publishing again (the current issue is about two years late). However, he still has ample stocks of the first two year's issues - if I were you, I'd buy the complete set while he still has them. This magazine is the English-language equivalent of "MJ" - 'nuff said, OK?
       audioXpress
    Audio Amateur Publishing
    PO Box 576
    Peterborough, NH, 03458-0576
    (603) 924-9464 Voice
    (603) 924-9467 Fax
       Website: http://www.audioxpress.com/
       Glass Audio, Speaker Builder, and (solid-state) Audio Electronics are now one magazine, audioXpress, a magazine aimed at the entire hi-fi builder/enthusiast community. This takes us full circle right back to the classic DIY magazine of the early Seventies, Audio Amateur, and by the same publisher, Ed Dell. That makes it 30-plus years that Mr. Dell has enriched the audio community with articles from the leading designers in audio ... Erno Borbeley, Joe D'Appolito, Vance Dickason, Nelson Pass, Eric Barbour, Reg Williamson, Nobu Shiseido, and many others.
       The Audio Amateur magazines are excellent resources for information on new and old circuits and speaker designs. For direct-heated triode fans, check out the Nobu Shiseido articles in Vols. 6-1 and 9-3 of Glass Audio; his side comments on using the singing voice as a reference standard are worthy of close examination and re-reading. All of the Norman Crowhurst reprints are of exceptional merit and a must-read for anyone who cares about good electronic design. Yours truly appears in Vol. 9-4 of Glass Audio, discussing the harmonic spectra of different amplifier topologies and their relationship to the sonic character of the amplifier.
       Old Colony Sound Lab
    305 Union Street PO Box 243
    Peterborough, NH, 03458-0243
    (603) 924-6371 Voice
    (603) 924-6526 Voice
    (603) 924-9467 Fax
       Website: http://www.audioxpress.com/
       If the Ariel website is above your head, do yourself a big favor and please buy a copy of Vance Dickason's "Loudspeaker Design Cookbook" from Old Colony Sound (BKAA2-V). By the time you understand the material in Vance's book, the contents of the Ariel page (which is intended for advanced builders only) will become much clearer. If you are ambitious, get Martin Colloms' book "High Perfomance Loudspeakers" (BKW1). If you plan to design your own speakers from scratch, get the full set of AES Anthologies, Volumes One through Four (BKAS1/1, 1/2, 1/3, 1/4). This material is not optional for serious speaker designers.
       Speaker design takes years of dedicated study, and is not the kind of thing that can be answered in an e-mail response. Sorry, it can't be done! You wouldn't expect to learn UNIX in a single e-mail, would you? Well, high-quality speaker design is every bit as complex as UNIX device driver code. The Ariel Web page describes only one possibility; thousands more are possible. Your chances for lasting satisfaction with do-it-yourself speakers are far greater once you understand how they work. This takes more than a theoretical understanding; it requires measurement tools, the know-how to use them, and a sonic familiarity with the sound of live, unamplified instruments.
       In addition to books, Old Colony also carries a wide range of audio items (like the essential ProSonus Studio Reference CD, US$69.95, CDSA1) and many kits for projects published in Audio Amateur, Glass Audio, and Speaker Builder magazines. They also carry the IMP and LAUD speaker test software, which are the right low-cost measurement solutions if you are serious about designing and building speakers for yourself. Why guess the response of the speaker if you can measure it accurately with a PC and a sound card?
       Positive Feedback Magazine
    A Journal of High-End Audio
       Website: http://www.positive-feedback.com/
       This is the place where the complete series of the "Soul of Sound" articles first saw the light of day. PF has writers and editors covering all aspects of the high-end, ultra-fi, and recording industries. As a result of this editorial approach and the spirit of co-operation within the PF community, it has a broader reach than the "big two" audio magazines, and covers design, philosophy, reviews, recordings, and just about anything interesting and/or funny. PF has no "party line", so don't expect the writers to all agree with each other ... as one of the PF editors myself, I know for a fact they don't!
       North Creek Music Systems
    Main Street, PO Box 1120
    Old Forge, NY, 13420
    (315) 369-2500 Fax/Voice
       Website: http://www.northcreekmusic.com/
       North Creek is now offering the Ariel and ME2 in kit form, as well as top-quality parts for building your own projects. They offer the Zen metallized polypropylene, the Harmony 625V 1.0uF polypropylene, and the Crescendo film-and-foil polypropylene capacitors, as well as Ohmite 1% non-inductive wirewound resistors, 10, 12, and 14 gauge high-purity air-core inductors, and the best of the drivers from the Vifa and Scan-Speak driver line.
       The George Short-designed projects offered in the catalog are similar in build quality and refinement to high-end systems selling for $5,000 to $12,000 retail, and have interesting little details rarely seen in commercial offerings.
       Madisound Speaker Components
    8608 University Green
    Box 44283
    Madison, WI, 53744-4283
    (608) 831-3433 Voice
    (608) 831-3771 Fax
       Website: http://www.madisound.com/
       I can't emphasis enough that the Ariel and ME2 are extremely advanced projects that demand the best associated components. If all you have is a transistor amp, the Ariels and ME2 are not really the best choice. If you've never built a "difficult" speaker before, don't even think about building them!
       That's where a good outfit like Madisound comes in. Their kits are well-designed, easy to build, and sound good with transistor electronics. Not only that, the folks in Wisconsin are friendly, have detailed spec sheets for the very wide range of drivers they carry, and offer an extensive range of ready-to-build kits.
       Want to combine XYZ woofer with an ABC tweeter - don't ask me - ask Madisound! They have an excellent crossover-design service for a very modest charge. And don't kid yourself you can fake a crossover without a sophisticated measurement system: you can't. It takes serious instrumentation and computer analysis to even get the crossover in the ballpark. Without that, the money you spend on fancy drivers is wasted - for that matter, expensive and exotic drivers actually have rougher response than the drivers in the Ariel, and demand a more complex and sophisticated crossover that's precisely matched to the drivers. Madisound will sell you the drivers, and take care of the most difficult aspect of speaker design for you.
       Last but not least, Madisound also has the many other bits-n-pieces needed for a complete loudspeaker, including Deflex damping pads for the interior of the loudspeaker cabinet. The FTP-able Madisound BBS has many public-domain and shareware programs for loudspeaker design.
       A.O.S. HiFi-Vertrieb
       Website: http://www.aos-lautsprecher.de/
       Interesting items for European builders, with a fascinating selection of specialty Scan-Speak drivers. It is the first place I heard of the D2905/9500 and 9700 tweeter, and is also the home of a custom Scan-Speak 18W carbon-fiber midbass with a 11 ohm impedance, specifically intended for use in parallel-connected pairs.
       To visit these goodies, click on the Website shown above, then navigate over to the left frame, scroll down, and click on "Chassis". That should get you to the full Scan-Speak driver line. The A.O.S. Studio 90 looks like a very good update of a classic speaker, the TDL 90. Anyone that's ever heard an IMF or TDL speaker knows the unique qualities of transmission-line bass. TDL bass combined with Scan-Speak mid and treble should be something to hear.
       Michael Percy Audio
       Website: http://www.percyaudio.com/
       Michael specializes in the hard-to-get parts that appear in the most exotic audiophile and ultra-fi equipment in the world. Want to get Yamamura wire, Rel-Cap polystyrenes, Black Gate carbon-fiber electrolytics, Caddock and Mills resistors, and Deflex damping pads? It's all here.
       Stressless Chairs
    Ekornes of Norway
    (At better furniture stores)
       Website: http://www.ekornes.com/
       Hey, stop slouching in that couch! You've devoted all that time, money, and energy getting your hi-fi to sound good, so why not relax and enjoy it? Besides, if you're physically tense, your hearing won't be as attentive and pleasurable (really true, folks).
       The Stressless chairs are to a sofa or ordinary chair what ultra-fi system is to home theater. All I need to do is get a review sample for a (very extended) in-home review, and I've got it made.

    Interesting Ultra-Fi Sites

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       AVVT Vacuum Tubes
    http://www.jacmusic.com/
       Alesa Vaic is one of the pioneers of the direct-heated triode (DHT) revolution, introducing the VV30B in the early Nineties. The VV30B, an enhanced version of the classic Western Electric 300B, was the first new-design DHT in more than 50 years. There are now several companies making modern versions of the 2A3 and 300B, such as KR, JJ Electronics, Svetlana, and the Chinese vendors, but AVVT continues to revive extremely rare and desirable DHT's (antique mesh-plates and European classics), as well as creating entirely new designs such as the AV5, AV8, and AV20.
       The photo shows the AVVT mesh-plate 2A3 that is the talk of the ultra-fi folks. Nobody really knows why, but mesh-plate tubes sound different than identical tubes with solid plates. (Electrons rebounding off the solid plates and affecting the space charge around the grid? Who knows?) In any event, in addition to novel and very interesting tubes, the site itself is out of the ordinary, and covers circuits, hard-to-find parts, various discussions about the ultra-fi world, and has links to diverse parts of the Net. Well worth a visit and an extended browse.
       Direct Heating
    http://www2.big.or.jp/~dh/

    This website is a shrine to the remarkable all-transformer-coupled amplifiers of Sakuma-san. Check out the "300B push-pull/300B push-pull end Pre-Main Amplifier" - this is a mono integrated amplifier with a built-in RIAA section. You think the the picture is surprising? Check out the schematic! This confection was featured in Japan's largest audio magazine in June 1988.
       Way back in 1977, the editor of MJ magazine had the courage to open the pages of Japan's leading audiophile magazine to a designer who said "Farewell to Theory." Click here to find out more about the Sakuma philosophy.
       Galibier Designs
    http://www.galibierdesign.com/

    Well, true, Thom Mackris is my neighbor and hifi pal, but that doesn't change the fact he makes a damn good turntable - which sounds especially stunning with the Schroeder Reference and Tri-Planar arms, and the ZYX Universe and Dynavector VX-1s cartridges. Before you shell out a lot of money, buy a ticket on Frontier Airlines and come visit us in Boulder, Colorado. (Actually, we're neighbors in a little town called Erie, about 15 miles east of Boulder, and 25 miles north of Denver.)
       Since going to the European Triode Festival and hearing Christian Rintelen's EMT930, and more recently, the turntable that Thom makes, I've had my eyes opened about the real high-end. That's why I'm strongly recommending a personal audition when it comes to making a serious decision - trust me, the reviewers don't know what they're talking about, and the folks in the Internet forums are worse, although at least they don't have the conflict-of-interest issues that plagues all the magazine and audio-review Internet sites.
       Why am I dissing these folks, who might be nice guys personally? Well, I've met them, and heard their systems in their own homes. I can tell you right now that the best systems in the world are not in the homes of reviewers - they're in the homes of extreme DIY enthusiasts, some of who live right here in Northern Colorado. In this area alone, I've heard two of the best systems I've heard anywhere - and the only off-the-shelf components in one of these systems are Thom's turntable and the Schroeder Reference tonearm. Everything else is custom-made for that system, down to the audio transformers themselves. Christian Rintelen's system in Zurich is similar - all custom made, and far above any commercial hifi system you can find in any store.
       That's just how it is - naturally, review magazines hardly want to publicize this, for the simple reason that advertising pays for 70 to 90% of the operating cost of the magazine. By the way, I don't blame the manufacturers for this situation - they know better than anyone that bad reviews can make or break o product - or even an entire company - and that the magazines see themselves as gatekeepers for the industry. As Reagan said, "Trust, but Verify". Before you spend, take a little vacation to Colorado, or wherever that component of interest is made. Listen for yourself, and be ready to be surprised.
       Anthony Gallo Acoustics
    http://www.roundsound.com/

    I heard the A'Diva Ti at the last Rocky Mountain Festival, and was impressed how good they are. I don't much care for "mainstream" speakers - especially those aimed at the home theatre market - but the A'Diva Ti's sounded sweet, open and musical on a mid-price Chinese tube amp - and at a very competitive price, too. The sonics were easily in the $2000 to $3000/pr class, and Mr. Gallo did a terrific job calming down the metallic coloration that you hear from dome tweeters made from these materials.
       As far as I can tell from talking to Anthony Gallo, the paper is cross-damping the titanium, while at the same time extending the HF response well beyond what a straight paper cone can do. As a result, they don't sound like metal-domes at all - just very good paper cones, with a sonic character like the fabled Peerless HFC225 or the Bozak paper/aluminum tweeter of years gone by. No crossover of course, except for the subwoofer, which you can buy from Gallo or build yourself.
       People who are members of the single-driver religion - yes, I'm talking to you, Lowther and Fostex fans - should give these little guys a listen with a good tube amp. They're really too good for most home-theater receivers, and deserve better. I know I'd take them over any Fostex any day of the week.
       Transmission Line Loudspeakers
    http://www.mjloudspeaker.ca/

    These folks in Canada make some interesting TL loudspeakers - haven't heard them, but they look promising. I'm always a fan of TL speakers - the bass has a quality that's quite different than conventional closed or vented boxes, and I feel is more musical in character.
       The Speaker Building Page
    http://www.speakerbuilding.com/

    This attractive one-stop site provides numerous speaker kits, plans, driver specs, interviews, and construction articles. The author has gone the extra mile and used the powerful CLIO system (similar to MLSSA) to measure an interesting variety of sample drivers. Speaker systems designed around the advanced magnesium-cone Seas Excel drivers can be found here as well.
       The Center for Reiki Training
    http://www.reiki.org/

    Reiki is what I do when I'm not fooling around with audio. Having grown up in Japan and Hong Kong (1956 to 1966), I find science, engineering, and mysticism are all part of the spectrum of experience.

    No 1996 to 2006 Lynn Olson.

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       Home " Tech Info " Vacuum Tubes
      
       Related categories: Books, Manuals, & Schematics, Forums, Tech Info, Tubes & Electronic Parts
      
      

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    Nostalgia Air http://www.nostalgiaair.org
    Online antique and Vintage radio references offering free online schematics, manuals, tube data, references and more! Offers a tube substitution and characteristics guide, schematics and manuals, and an active technical forum,
       Added:1 Jul 2010 Clicks:40 Rating:0.00 Reviews:0 Review this web site
      
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    Frank's Electron Tube Pages http://www.tubedata.info
    A big tube data site with emphasis on foreign tubes. Includes substitution guides and lots of other tube information.
       Added:2 Jul 2010 Clicks:29 Rating:0.00 Reviews:0 Review this web site
      
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    Tube Collectors Association http://www.tubecollectors.org
    The Tube Collectors Association is established to support and encourage the collection of electron tubes of all types and historical periods. The TCA provides a forum for sharing information on the development, manufacturing, trends in design, specifications, and historical relevance of electron tubes. The membership of TCA is dedicated to the non-commercial collection of electron tubes and the preservation of electron tube history. TCA prints a magazine six tuimes per year. They also offer on site tube ads and a tube database search engine.
       Added:2 Jul 2010 Clicks:17 Rating:0.00 Reviews:0 Review this web site
      
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    Virtual Valve Museum http://www.tubecollector.org
    This is a site by a tube collector in the UK. It is quite an undertaking an a serious reference for anyone interested in vacuum tubes. There are currently 2730 valves in the collection, 2295 on the website.
       Added:10 Jul 2010 Clicks:14 Rating:0.00 Reviews:0 Review this web site
      
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    The National Valve Museum (Virtual) http://www.valve-museum.org
    This museum exists to preserve our heritage of the early days of the electronic age when the wireless set had to warm-up, and, viewed through the perforated back of all electronic equipment, could be seen the dull red glow of the valves inside. This is a very large, easy to search index of 2,701 tubes with nice pictures and other tube related resources too!
       Added:10 Jul 2010 Clicks:15 Rating:0.00 Reviews:0 Review this web site
      
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    Duncan's Amp Pages - Free Schematics & Tube Data http://www.duncanamps.com
    There is a nice list of tube music, guitar, and hi-fi amplifier schematics here that are available for free download. There is also a wonderful tube data chart database. Just enter the tube number and hit the button!
       Added:23 Jul 2010 Clicks:21 Rating:0.00 Reviews:0 Review this web site
      
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    Tuning Eye Tubes in 1930s Radio Sets http://home.pacbell.......un_eye.htm
    A short site about the history, use, care, and maintenance of tuning eye tubes such as the 6E5 and 6U5.
       Added:26 Jul 2010 Clicks:7 Rating:0.00 Reviews:0 Review this web site
      
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    Fun With Tubes http://www.funwithtubes.net
    Very good tutorials in short and interesting increments about basic tube electronic circuitry. A good place to start if you're starting out in the world of radio or audio restoration or if you have experience too.
       Added:26 Jul 2010 Clicks:10 Rating:0.00 Reviews:0 Review this web site
      
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    Bills's Vintage Tube Site http://www.bill01a.com
    Welcome to my on-line tube site where you can browse early tube photos and articles. The tubes are mostly from my personal collection. The articles are both new and updated versions of those I have run in various club publications. Re-visit occassionally for new material.
       Added:29 Jul 2010 Clicks:23 Rating:0.00 Reviews:0 Review this web site
      
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    N6JV's Transmitting Tube Museum - Virtual http://www.n6jv.com
    Web presentation of a large collection of transmitting tubes that is located at the authors home in Sacramento, California. It is a virtual museum that tube collectors could use for refere
    nce on the internet. Anyone interested in transmitting tubes may also visit the collection.
       Added:29 Jul 2010 Clicks:18 Rating:0.00 Reviews:0 Review this web site
      
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    O'Neill's Electronic Museum - Virtual http://www.oneillselectronicmuseum.com
    An on-line 'Private Collection of Early Electronic Equipment and Unique Electronic Components - Anecdotes and Insights into Electronic History 1850 to 1950. Based on the collection of the late Rudolph Mangold. This is primarily a vacuum tube museum but the radios and other devices presented here are quite unique. The entire collection is for sale as a lot should you want to instantly have one of the best early electronic collections in the USA! (Picture shown is of a Marconi Transformer from the collection.)
       Added:29 Jul 2010 Clicks:12 Rating:0.00 Reviews:0 Review this web site
      
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    Tube Museum http://www.roehren-m......x_eng.html
    Museum with a searchable database providing information and pictures of 2561 tubes.
       Added:29 Jul 2010 Clicks:8 Rating:0.00 Reviews:0 Review this web site
      
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    Japanese Vacuum Tube Museum / ??????? http://radiomann.hp.......Rtube.html
    An interesting Japanese collectors webs
    ite that is mostly in Japanese but with some English translation. This is a tube museum form a Japanese perspective. There is also a big radio page plus some audio and ham radio gear too.
       Added:29 Jul 2010 Clicks:15 Rating:0.00 Reviews:0 Review this web site
      
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    Mike's Electric Stuff http://www.electricstuff.co.uk
    Wow! This is a really big site full of everything electronic, most of it vintage. Tubes, Tesla Coils, weird modern stuff, and vintage stuff too!
       Added:30 Jul 2010 Clicks:19 Rating:0.00 Reviews:0 Review this web site
      
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    Magic Eye Tubes http://www.magiceyetubes.com
    'A practical guide for the hobbyist, enthusiast, collector, old radio restorer, or anyone interested in...Magic eye tubes.' There is also a nice page of some very nice old radios!
       Added:30 Jul 2010 Clicks:18 Rating:0.00 Reviews:0 Review this web site
      
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    The Tube Database Search Site http://www.cnjradio.net/tubedb/
    Giant tube database. Enter the number and get your data! There are also some guitar amp schematics on the front page of this site, 'Chris & Justin Radio'.
       Added:3 Aug 2010 Clicks:16 Rating:0.00 Reviews:0 Review this web site
      
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    Wireless Database - Over 3,000 UK & US Radios + Tubes! http://www.classaxe.com/wireless/data/
    This is a very large radio, tube, and more database. There are 913 radios in the Worldwide database and 2,133 Britsh (UK) radios. There are tons of cross reference options especially with the British section. If you don't know what it is, this site might help!
       Added:4 Aug 2010 Clicks:10 Rating:0.00 Reviews:0 Review this web site
      
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    "Tubes 201" - How Vacuum Tubes Really Work http://www.john-a-harper.com/tubes201/
    Tutorial on 'How Tubes Work'. A good discussion and lesson!
       Added:5 Aug 2010 Clicks:12 Rating:0.00 Reviews:0 Review this web site
      
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    TubeSound.com - Tubes, Test Equipment http://www.tubesound.com
    Lots of info about tube testers, tubes, and some audio is presented here. There are also tube tester and audio manuals for sale. The picture of the authors collection of tube testers laid out in his yeard on the 'Tube Testers' page is amazing!
       Added:11 Aug 2010 Clicks:18 Rating:0.00 Reviews:0 Review this web site
      
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    Vintage Components - Tube Manual Downloads http://www.vcomp.co.......anuals.htm
    VintageComponents.co.uk manual download page complete with Telefunken (1930), Rca (1929), and Western Electric (1930 & 1930-1960 archive) tube manuals. Also has a Pilot Radio 1930 product catalog download.
       Added:16 Aug 2010 Clicks:26 Rating:0.00 Reviews:0 Review this web site
      
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    Television History: The Beginning of a New Medium http://www.vt52.com
    VT52 is a website dedicated to one tube, the VT-52. History, operation, and other points of interest are covered. There is also a significant section on the UX26 and some other extra tube features.
       Added:20 Sep 2010 Clicks:9 Rating:0.00 Reviews:0 Review this web site
      
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    Sylvania Technical Manual 1943 http://208.190.133.2......3/1943.htm
    Photographic database of indexed pages from the Sylvania Technical Manual 1943. Most popular tube type data sheets are here as is a short course on the 'Fundamental Properties of Vacuum Tubes' that was included in theis manual originally.
       Added:1 Oct 2010 Clicks:14 Rating:0.00 Reviews:0 Review this web site
      
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    Basics Of Vacuum Tubes http://www.radau5.ch/basics.html
    Scanned chapters of old tube related books in English or German. There is a lot of vacuum tube info imbedded here!
       Added:1 Oct 2010 Clicks:15 Rating:0.00 Reviews:0 Review this web site
      
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    Allied Radio Electronics Data Handbook http://www.qsl.net/w......_of_c.html
    Lots of good data is in this one indexed download including tube substitution, capacitor color codes, math, impedance, power formulii, etc.
       Added:1 Oct 2010 Clicks:25 Rating:0.00 Reviews:0 Review this web site
      
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    Tuberadio.IT - Tube Box Templates + Ghirardi & Other Downloads http://www.tuberadio.it
    Tube box templates for printing plus many pieces of old literat
    ure inlcuding Ghirardi's are available for free download,
       Added:1 Oct 2010 Clicks:6 Rating:0.00 Reviews:0 Review this
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      

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