Gavrov Sergey Nazipovich
Sergey Gavrov Modernization of the Russian Empire. Social and cultural aspects of modernization processes in RussiaСовременная литература: [Регистрация] [Найти] [Рейтинги] [Обсуждения] [Новинки] [Помощь]
  • © Copyright Gavrov Sergey Nazipovich (
  • Обновлено: 23/05/2009. 546k. Статистика.
  • Монография: Политика
  • Аннотация:
    The process of Russian modernization as alternation of imperial and liberal models of modernization is considered in a monograph, in which an imperial model is a dominant, and liberal only additional, compensative. Nasha a historical misfortune consists in that Russian modernization is instrumental in not so much included of Russia in modernity, how many to strengthening of feodal'no-imperskikh grounds of the kul'turno-civilizacionnoy system. Modernization in the name strengthening of empire results in the redistribution of vital energy of man from the sphere of daily occurence in a sphere society or religious megaproektov, creates the world, where a man is the improvised mean only, and strengthening of empire is a great purpose. Whether it is possible to tear this vicious circle, show a country out of imperial track, to tear an umbilical cord, relating it with an impersko-feodal'nym legacy, and to release a man from service Empire, to Due and Power - here that circle of questions, on which we try to answer in this book. A book is intended for Social Anthropology, political analysts, historians, sociologists, all those, who is interested in the processes of Russian modernization. Gavrov Sergey Nazipovich (Russian: Гавров Сергей Назипович, 1964, Gorky, USSR) - Russian philosopher, social anthropologist, a political scientist. Doctor of Philosophy. Professor of Sociology and Social Anthropology MGUDT. Senior Research Fellow sector social processes and systems of the Russian Institute for Cultural Research. Author of several books on the problems of modernization, intercultural, imperial and colonial studies, and over one hundred scientific articles included in the collection of the Library of Congress, the world's leading libraries and universities (Harvard, Turabian, Chicago, APA, MLA, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Freie Universität Berlin. A member of the editorial board of the journals Personality. Culture. Community (Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences) and the Psychology elite, as well as the Commission To study the complex problems of human culture and society, acting under the Board of the Russian Academy of Sciences The history of world culture. In the area of scientific interest - the problem of modernization of transformations in different hypostasis, including political, demographic, educational, social and cultural as well as the philosophy of education. Professor Gavrov included in the summary recommendation list of Russian scientists and politicians, best reflected in their political life in Russia in 1994-2003 years. Worldcat. Russian Politics. A member of the Writers' Union in Moscow. Topics: Russia, the empire, history, politics, social processes, modernization, politicheskaya theory, sotsiologiya social change, filosofiya history of national identity Russian idea, democracy, human rights, Ivan the Terrible, Peter the Great, Nicholas I, Nicholas II, Lenin, Stalin, Brezhnev, Andropov, Gorbachev, Yeltsin, colonial studies, the revolution, Europe, America, Asian studies, alteration

  •   Scientific Council of the Russian Academy of Sciences for the Study and Preservation of Cultural and Natural Heritage
      Sergey Gavrov
      Modernization of the Russian Empire.
      Social and cultural aspects of modernization processes in Russia
      Gavrov Sergey Nazipovich Modernization of the Russian Empire. Social and cultural aspects of modernization processes in Russia. Moskva: URSS, 2004. Gavrov S.N. 2004. ББК 60.5 66.3(2Poc) 87.6
      Type: Book; Russian
      Publisher: Moskva: URSS, 2004.
      ISBN: 5354009154 9785354009152
      The process of Russian modernization as alternation of imperial and liberal models of modernization is considered in a monograph, in which an imperial model is a dominant, and liberal only additional, compensative. Nasha a historical misfortune consists in that Russian modernization is instrumental in not so much included of Russia in modernity, how many to strengthening of feodal'no-imperskikh grounds of the kul'turno-civilizacionnoy system. Modernization in the name strengthening of empire results in the redistribution of vital energy of man from the sphere of daily occurence in a sphere society or religious megaproektov, creates the world, where a man is the improvised mean only, and strengthening of empire is a great purpose. Whether it is possible to tear this vicious circle, show a country out of imperial track, to tear an umbilical cord, relating it with an impersko-feodal'nym legacy, and to release a man from service Empire, to Due and Power - here that circle of questions, on which we try to answer in this book.
      A book is intended for Social Anthropology, political analysts, historians, sociologists, all those, who is interested in the processes of Russian modernization.
      Gavrov Sergey Nazipovich (Russian: Гавров Сергей Назипович, 1964, Gorky, USSR) - Russian philosopher, social anthropologist, a political scientist. Doctor of Philosophy. Professor of Sociology and Social Anthropology MGUDT. Senior Research Fellow sector social processes and systems of the Russian Institute for Cultural Research. Author of several books on the problems of modernization, intercultural, imperial and colonial studies, and over one hundred scientific articles included in the collection of the Library of Congress, the world's leading libraries and universities (Harvard, Turabian, Chicago, APA, MLA, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Freie Universität Berlin. A member of the editorial board of the journals Personality. Culture. Community (Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences) and the Psychology elite, as well as the Commission To study the complex problems of human culture and society, acting under the Board of the Russian Academy of Sciences The history of world culture. In the area of scientific interest - the problem of modernization of transformations in different hypostasis, including political, demographic, educational, social and cultural as well as the philosophy of education. Professor Gavrov included in the summary recommendation list of Russian scientists and politicians, best reflected in their political life in Russia in 1994-2003 years. Worldcat. Russian Politics. A member of the Writers' Union in Moscow.
      Russia, the empire, history, politics, social processes, modernization, politicheskaya theory, sotsiologiya social change, filosofiya history of national identity Russian idea, democracy, human rights, Ivan the Terrible, Peter the Great, Nicholas I, Nicholas II, Lenin, Stalin, Brezhnev, Andropov, Gorbachev, Yeltsin, colonial studies, the revolution, Europe, America, Asian studies, alteration
      Russian Institute for Cultural Research. Russia 119072 Moscow, Bersenevskaya nab. 18-20-22 unit 3. Phone: +7 (495) 959-09-08 Fax: +7 (495) 959-13-98. e-meil:
      leading researcher of the Russian Institute for Cultural Research,
      Doctor of Philosophy Selezneva, Elena;
      Doctor of Philosophy, Professor Vojvodina Larissa
      Publishing Едиториал URSS. 117312, r. Moscow, prospect 60-let Oktyabrya, 9. The license ID number 05175 dated 25.06.2001 r. Signed in print 16.08.2004 r. Format 60x90/16. Circulation of 1500 copies. Pec. l. 22. Zak. Number 200
      Printed in the GP Oblizdat. 248640, Kaluga, pl. Old Market, 5.
      ISBN 5-354-00915-4 9785354009152
      љSergey Gavrov, 2004
      љ Едиториал URSS, 2004
      Since Peter the Great, you are more and more expand its limits, not to lose in the limitless space.
      Claude Henri de Saint-Simon Ruvrua. -- MS Lunin Russia - it is an empire. To support it, the state must hold in their hands, and other aspects of life in the nation.
      S. Witte Why is everything so happened? And will lie down on the character or will of God. How should it be otherwise? We pay for all, and do not have to surrender.
      J. Brodsky
      Preface 3
      Chapter 1. Two models of modernization 4
      I. The phenomenon of modernization 4
      II. The imperial and liberal model of modernization 11
      III. The historical sequence of Russian modernization 22
      Chapter 2. The Anatomy of Russian traditionalism 40
      I. The traditional mind: the mental and cultural syncretism 40
      III. Feudal - Kvazifeodalnaya empire as a form of social self-Russian cultural and civilizational system 61
      Chapter 3. The modernization and socio-cultural processes in Russia since 1991. 72
      I. Sociocultural the situation in Russia after 1991 72
      II. System and disistema. Scenarios and Perspectives 83
      Literature 92
      When asked why the author has created an interest in issues related to modernization transformation in Russia, the answer is easy. Russian bird-troika, all the 70's and most of the 80-ies of the dull ramble on raznovelikim party meetings and dissident kitchen, by the end of the 80's - early 90's ozhila - so as ozhila. Rvanula right off the bat, so yes, that flew from a drop rider (former Soviet republics), the will, and who got in her captivity at different phases of Russian history. And suffered. And we have - his contemporaries - captures the spirit, not only kaleidoscopic changing world around us, but our lives, ourselves. Here it is - a new stage of Russian modernization.
      Wanted, at the time which is already in our history to understand who we are, where from and where we are going and how big or small the chances to come to the end in a decent place, and if we get face-control at the entrance to the civilization of modern. But, more importantly, whether this large portion of society and the Russian authorities? And if so, what principles we are willing to waive that, as important for themselves willing to sacrifice?
      The waves rolled the modernization of Russia for over three centuries, beginning with the transformation of Peter I. During this time, something managed to do, but something had remained in the field of dreams and Project. So why the constant temptation of upgrading is accompanied by no less a permanent opposition to modernization processes, when the reform should be kontrreformy, but after some time, the process reproduced in the same sequence? In our book we will try to find the answer to this and other sick of our lives.
      Most speak of Russia following the path of the so-called catching modernization. But this is only part of the truth, catching the model works only in some segments of Russia's socio-cultural system, but not in the system as a whole. During the modernization period in our history, we catch up Western civilization modernize (primarily Western Europe), especially in military and industrial technology, all that serves the development of military-technical potential of the country. A substantial change of social structure that would include not only the adoption of institutional designs offered civilization modern, but also its spirit, the introduction of and compliance with civil rights and freedoms, civil society - all this for most of the period simply did not exist.
      The authorities seemed much simpler and more reliable as to not rely on private initiative little man, but to take ocherodnoe / extraordinary fateful decision to mobilize all possible forces for the next breakthrough. When the price of terrible stress / excess of vitality people breakthrough was made, or that happened more often, partially, suddenly turns out that around a hopeless straggler socio-cultural space that is simply not able to not only play, but also maintain this local success. Understanding that the existence of civil society, the level of social development in general is the supreme and ultimate value - the power is not today.
      So, the main thing. For centuries, the main effort in the process of Russia's modernization is not committed to joining the western civilization in its genealogy modern, but for the sake of conservation, reproduction and consolidation of the empire. Modernization was carried out only in order to bring in more modern and competitive, because the type of individual (empire) of the elements, forced the victim and the retreat of private, local areas were allowed to preserve and strengthen the whole mind and body empire.
      Finally, there is another reason that led us to consider in detail the specifics of this Russia's modernization process. As our analysis of scientific publications, existing studies do not provide more or less complete picture of Russian modernization transformation. Either they are remote from modern socio-cultural realities, or the phenomenon of modernization has not been studied in terms of changes in culture and society within the framework of the theoretical and cultural (cultural) approach, not just some sort multicolour picture of the sociocultural empiricist, through a change which manifested processes of modernization, but also to better understand the causal relationships that lead to a turn of history.
      In this book we try to consider the historical background of Russia's modernization and phases, to assess its prospects and, as a result of these perspectives, our personal life chances, ie, Are we going to build a house, raise children and to cultivate our garden, or again will roll boots, the fashion will spetssluzhbistskaya deportment and Empire throw us into the next furnace ideokraticheskogo project.
      The author expresses his sincere thanks to colleagues who took the trouble of reading this book: Doctor of Philosophy, Professor EA Orlova, and Doctor of Philosophy, Professor A. Pelipenko. Joint discussion of the alleged problems and comments contributed to a better articulation of the author's concept. Special thanks I would like to thank reviewers, leading researcher of the Russian Institute for Cultural Research, Doctor of Philosophy E. Selezneva, and Doctor of Philosophy, Professor LN Vojvodina.
      Chapter 1. Two models of modernization
      I. The phenomenon of modernization
      The problem of modernization is one of the most painful for the national consciousness, both scientific and public, as it relates to the formulation of both medium-and long-term development strategy. The word modernization beyond the strict understanding of the scientific term is used very widely and the blurry, often including a trudnosovmestimye value. To make our study should correct, should match the term modernization with its sister concepts.
      This, above all, the notion of Modernism. The so-called Most modern in retrospect, an extremely broad correlates with the emergence of Christianity. The term modern first used in Europe at the end of V in. in order to distinguish received the official status of the Christian and pagan Roman past. In the next era of the contents of the notion of changing, but the Enlightenment and Romanticism and then filling it with meaning, соотносимым with the modern. Modern, advanced since then is that which contributes to the objective expression of spontaneously updating the relevance of the spirit of the time.
      In today's cultural and civilizational studies of modern or more modern era refers to Modern Times, Renaissance and the Reformation began, and ended (more or less permanently) with the approval of the post-ideological paradigm in the last quarter of the twentieth century.
      It seems to us that there is no particular need to specifically dwell on the content of the terms breeding modernization, Modern and moderniti with artistic terms nouveau (in the sense of artistic style of the late XIX - early XX century.) And Modernism (in value of artistic mainstream consciousness of the twentieth century). For example, the famous slavist, Italian philosopher Vittorio Strada, said that the Russian language is derived from the word modern, including the modernization, the Art Nouveau style, but not the most basic term modern, which will replace the category of modernity. Meanwhile, modern category is a more capacious concept than the category of modernity. In particular, we can speak about the contemporary period, modern, accentuating her now, we have observed period.
      If by modern we mean the period following the European bourgeois revolutions (particularly would like to emphasize the English Revolution 1640 - 1642gg.) And continued during the entire time until the new transition most developed nations into a postindustrial society, the end of XX - beginning of XXI century, at least, the nearest historical perspective are considered by us as late modern. We also believe solidariziruyas in this respect with the position of the Senegalese sociologist S. Amin, that Today (modernity) incomplete, it opens the door to the unknown. Today nezavershaema in its essence, but it involves a sequence of forms, which are very diverse overcome the contradictions of society in every moment of its history . Our assessment of this period is largely correlated with the position of E. Giddens, J. Habermas, who see the project as a modern up-to-date, a certain creative potentiality. At the same time, we can not accept that an objection to such a point of view, reasonable. Thus, A. Helena believes that the Enlightenment assumptions are dead, continue to apply only to the consequences.
      Analysis of such phenomena as historically significant modern and modernization can be carried out at different levels. For external empirical phenomena classified under the domains of politics, economy, sociology, history, technology, law reflected changes in both individual and collective mentality of the European nations. Resorting to these profound changes in the research makes the idea not only to seek the answer to the question how this happened, but above all why. In this regard, there is a need not so much the subject-empirical, but in the cultural-theoretical approach, in which the mentality and civilization are indissoluble elements of a single cultural system.
      We are well aware of the way in which Europe has become Europe in terms of the global source of modernization influences. But when we try to understand why it happened, the answer is no longer so clear, suggesting an appeal to the philosophical and theoretical and cultural areas of scientific discourse. When we try to answer it, based mainly on the external empirical data, much is inaccessible to our understanding. Thus, at the level of historical and empirical analysis is almost impossible to explain why technological breakthrough XV century occurred in Europe rather than in the East, particularly in China, where this was sufficient for the external (physical) preconditions. In attempting to answer the question why Europe became the first in the era of modernization, we turn to the underlying characteristics of the field of European cultural and civilizational system that determine the direction of the vector of historical development.
      Famous Russian culturologist AA Pelipenko believes that Antiquity was the prototype of western utilitaristskogo society, its cultural and civilizational Wednesday focused on a higher level of socio-cultural dynamics than in the ancient world. Existential crisis of the Ancient East, related to the natural collapse of the traditional mythological-ritual system, was compensated in Antiquity by rooting for the human existential level, which resulted in the development of private property, inalienable civil rights.
      It should be noted that these trends are not slowing down due to the further development of the historical and socio-cultural dynamics, the desire to reproduce life in the tradition. Roman Empire period of decline experienced stagnation in the various fields of life, including in the important processes to speed up the dynamic field of technology. Sami technology at the time of death of the Western Roman Empire has not evolved over centuries, and there is no reason to believe that the Roman world maintained the ability to technological progress ... in the number of socially recognized social and intellectual priorities never included advances in the field of technology.
      Depletion and gradual decline, and then the loss of empire in the west and reached for a barbarous people in Europe who experienced a profound socio-cultural shock for a few centuries, the so-called dark ages, where the breakdown of communications and the ancient world has returned much of the West to the primitive state, which is characteristic of traditional rural civilization almost prehistoric times . Some of the ancient legacy of the barbaric peoples of western Europe were able to learn, but a large part of it became irrelevant past, moved to the area of memories. This society is still esteemed Roman tradition. But these traditions that existed only in the Christian form, has not been a living experience, and survived only as good memories .
      After a century after the civilizational catastrophe, which was to fall in Europe, the Western Roman Empire, the legacy of antiquity, and increasingly spreading the Christian faith, religious practice and a vital energy has become a barbarian etnoplemennyh entities to form a new cultural and civilizational new landscape of Christian Europe.
      This was quite different, with its own characteristics and cultural and civilizational system. A distinctive feature formed in the Middle Ages of Western European cultural and civilizational system was the three-world model, where the system-between the poles of God and the Devil, good and evil fit the natural, human. This is a three division of the world, highlighting the natural, indeed human, largely defined as the direction, and accelerating the intensity of dynamic processes in history and sotsiokulture of the system, stimulating the subsequent further development of an explosive material equipped man of peace.
      Parted with a net августинизмом in times Akvinata, Catholic worldview divides in two, not being ( light and dark ) - and sodium: a mountainous area between the supernatural, and the blessed hell unnatural area for the time being lived by its own rules, albeit under power of God, the natural . In addition, ... Catholicism was like ... Concordat between spirit and matter, thereby proclaimed monocracy spirit in theory, but the matter was given an opportunity to use in practice, canceled all of its rights (emphasis added - SG).
      Throughout the Middle Ages in Western Europe was a difficult and sometimes painful process of parting with the spirit августинизма changing Content of inopolozhennogo transcendent divine Absolute. Thus, already in its consideration of Pierre Abelyarom dogma of the divinity troichnosti noticeably lack of any sense of reality substantsialnoy perfect. As a result of this process celestial ideal values as if relegated to the ground. Departs the idea that every innovation is a taboo, as inspired by the devil. Innovation, technological advances do not identify more with sin. Joy and beauty of paradise can now be implemented on the ground .
      During the late Middle Ages gradually changing the jurisdiction of metaphysical issues, questions from this area are beginning to move on to the person, their decision now depends only on him, and not of thoughts and actions of some sverhestestestvennyh forces. Note that the logic of this rather lengthy, often latent in form of fit nominalistov victory over realistic, urban growth and the creation of universities, accompanied by increasing expression of the European mind to endless analytical procedures. This process is virtually completed in Europe in the era of New Age: The Age, which we call the new time ... determined that the man is the size and center of the existing one. Man - this is always and everywhere, ie that underlies any opredmechennosti, all that you can submit it subiectum .
      But if the center of the universe is itself a person, he may reflect on the various spheres of life, changing it in a rational manner, gradually less and less taking into account socio-cultural tradition sanctify sacred beginning. Losing its sacred justification sociocultural tradition more susceptible to change and people within it acquires a degree of freedom in the choice of what can be taken from the past, but from what can be discarded.
      The process of rationalization of the world came to the surface of life in the Renaissance and the Reformation, but its institutional presence was already in the era of the new era. There have been continued and have been implemented in practice, expressed in the range of Western European cultural principles: obscheevolyutsionny the principle of evolution from simple forms of life to its more complex forms and the principle of allocating more and more autonomous and self-sustaining entity of natural, and then a social context. E. Neumann noted that the western analysis reveals identity in constant motion as a forward and back, but with the steady advance in the direction specified at the outset: to liberate the individual from nature and the consciousness of the unconscious.
      This update of these processes and principles, supported by subsequent emergence of the nation-state and systematic capitalist production, to make Europe and then the entire Euro-Atlantic area of modernization civilizational transformations on a global scale. Modern, gradually going beyond the limits of Europe, has spread throughout the world largely because no other, more traditional forms of community could not resist it ... Is moderniti exclusively Western phenomenon in terms of lifestyle ... a direct response to this question should be yes .
      Having considered the most important theoretical and cultural dimensions of this process, let us now turn to the historical and empirical thinking about the phenomenon of modernization. Modern was the crown, the maximum point of the whole expression progressistskoy cultural and civilizational paradigm. The ideology of progress and is becoming increasingly secular content, throughout the period of modernization determined evropotsentrizm historical process, assuming the movement of various peoples in the ascending ladder of rationality, secular, ekonomikotsentrizmu. Robert Nisbet, in a generalized form of presenting the views of the classics of social and political thought in progress, said that in general the classical concept of the idea can be seen as a gradual liberation of humanity from fear and ignorance of traffic on the way to ever higher levels of civilization. Stadialny approach taken by the Evolutionary, neoevolyutsionisty, Marxist and positivist in a long time until the last decades of the last century, prevailed, and in indirect form, and today is available in the west, in large part to maintain the spirit of evropotsentrizma, Science.
      In considering the elements of modernization processes loaded in the contextual field of social history, political science and economics, we note the following. Until the second half of XX century, the real superiority of Western civilization over the rest of the world it was predominant, if not absolute. In the alternative, the Western path of development for most of the last century advocated socialist project, which is a desperate attempt to achieve the quantitative performance of the leading modern.
      Socialist modernization options practiced during the XX century in various countries around the world, especially in the USSR, were mostly non-adaptive response to the dramatic acceleration of the historical and socio-cultural dynamics within the current range Nouveau. It is no coincidence that out of this area was perceived predominantly socialist modernization option, since it is more consistent with the collective mentality of non societies. Naturally, the appeal to the socialist modernization option was not certain invariant to non-European states, are sufficient to provide the processes of modernization in Japan and some South-East Asia, it is referred to as tiger and Dragons Asia.
      Ten years after the beginning of the socialist experiment in Russia AV Lunacharsky considered the position of European writers, philosophers and politicians, the potential for involvement in the development paradigm progressistskuyu non societies, using the socialist modernization options. They believed that samouglublennaya Asia is seeking to borrow from Europe to boost physical, real activity, but it is virtually impossible to achieve the mechanical transfer of capitalism in the Asian, non-European in general, the soil. Asia at this stage of its development can not be perceived from Europe is the desire to progress in the material sphere of life directly, through the adoption of capitalism, free market, the introduction of political democracy and human rights. But indirect European influence in Asia possibly through Bolshevism, which would give a new gospel for the development of the Asian region itself, with this segment, and reborn: It will be the conceptual basis for the revival of Asia, ie, the vast majority of humanity. But the success of your exercise and movement in the West will be limited. Here you seduce .
      It is close to socialism collectivism of Asia, so far as individualistic Euro-Atlantic civilization, where his chance is vanishingly small. Today, looking at the processes of modernization in historical retrospect, it became clear that there is at present being developed and many civilizations. The problem is just that those of civilization, with many similar components, and there are points of intersection between them, continue to evolve, giving birth, new versions of various aspects of modernism, each of which offers its own program of cultural development. All this helps to diversify the approaches to the understanding of modernism and to the assessment of cultural programs initiated by different parts of contemporary societies .
      The second alternative projects, however, do not claim to universality has been the project of modernization through the conservative revolution, submitted Fascism in Italy and national socialism in Germany. Note that the use of the modernization model is largely a result of their similar historical fate. And Germany, throughout the Middle Ages, seek to revive the Roman Empire, and Italy, which flourished in the XIII century, the city-republic trade, by historical standards is too late to have shifted the paradigm of the formation of national states.
      The point is that urban commercial city-republic and imperial form of government, to a lesser extent than the national state, have accelerated the intensity of the historical and sociocultural dynamics. The result of this slowdown was the delay of dynamic processes in the state of Germany and Italy were able to solve this problem only in the 70-ies of XIX century. In many ways, precisely because of the formation of the national mythology has taken in these countries as an aggressive form.
      Analyzing the processes of modernization, it must be remembered that they represent a synthesis of progressive and recessive trends, progress and regress, although their consideration in a context dominated by the long diahronnom steady start. As an example of negative adaptive response to the challenge of Euro-Atlantic civilization can be considered the experience of totalitarian regimes of the XX century, including, above all, the experience of Nazi Germany and to some extent of Stalin's Soviet Union. As part of this socio-cultural projects used technology modernization at the same time denying the democratic organization of society, human rights, the regulation of severe creative potential of individuals. Totalitarian regimes of the XX century persistent external shell modernization of society rather than its substantive, ontological foundation.
      It was therefore of interest position A. Akhiezer, rassmotrevshego issues related to the formation of the political foundations of society modern challenges and problems encountered on this path. It belongs to the second wave of modernization Germany last century, far behind politically and economically more developed countries. German National Socialists tried to adapt the technology to the modern open society goals of the totalitarian, closed society. National Socialism in Germany was a reaction to the strengthening of internal social and cultural crisis and foreign policy defeat. In this case, rather, on the use of potency of modernization in the instrumental field, the application of its achievements in technology, military construction, partly in the economy.
      Totalitarian regimes have sought to adapt some of these developments for the reconstruction of archaic, closed society, an ideology which is a mixture of rationalism and irratsionalizma, reliance on science and at the same time, the most archaic mythological foundation of social consciousness. Back in 1923, the classic German literature T. Mann said that the German request to be committed to ... that is called freedom of the peoples of Europe, it would be ... tantamount to a requirement to violence over its nature .
      In the second half of XX century the situation changed radically, Germany, starting with its western part became part of and, subsequently, a key structural element of European Modernism. Enough to have already done the difficult way, or continue to move in this direction and some other countries of the European continent, including Italy and Spain and later Poland, Hungary and other former socialist countries. We appeal to the historical context of modernization processes in those European countries not only to emphasize the diversity in the internal level, but also desiring to emphasize determinancy historical fate of certain people of their historical past.
      The rest of mankind, often measured in years after the Second World War as the Third World, not only has failed to provide any meaningful alternative draft, and effective local development options for non-states. The situation changed in the second half of XX century, when successful, competitive options for modernizing reproduction outside of Western civilization. His interpretation of the modernization are dynamic, economically and socially successful Asian states, countries belonging to Islamic civilization, trying to use in economic activities religious establishment (the ban on receipt of the loan per cent in the Koranic tradition). According to the point of view, S. Eyzenshtadta, contradiction - between the uniqueness of the West and the fact that he was like a model for the rest of the world, but on the other hand, the specifics of the dynamics of other civilizations, it was not obvious at the time of Marx and Weber, where the spread of capitalism and modernization outside Europe was in its early stages. But it has become much more apparent at later stages of modernization after the Second World War .
      This contradiction finds visible expression in the stark disparities between the various civilizational habitats in the development of the material world, in the sphere of economic life. I. Wallerstein developed the theory of the world system, explaining the degree of inequality between countries of the first (state modernization) and the Third World. The process of forming a system of global economic and political ties based on the expansion of the global capitalist economy, since, at least from the XVI century. The capitalist world economy implies the existence of the nucleus of poluperiferii, peripherals and external arenas.
      States kernel I. Wallerstein include: UK, Netherlands, France and later joined the North-West Europe. It is in these countries having sophisticated enterprise, the industrial revolution. States, located in southern Europe around the Mediterranean, became the nucleus poluperiferiey countries. Some Asian and African territories belonged to the foreign arena, as they practically do not affect trade relations with the countries of the nucleus. Colonial processes and activities of major corporations engaged in Asia and Africa into the world economy. I. Wallerstein argues that the dominant country in the world system kernels are able to control the global trade processes, the first world countries have the opportunity to exploit the resources of third world countries.
      One important aspect of processes is, apparently, in the next. Western civilization period modernize increasingly moving in the horizontal plane, leaving behind a brace, the increasingly reduced, the vertical dimension, which manifests itself, inter alia, to transform and enrich the new, secular content of the Christian genesis of semantic systems and sub-culture. (A vertical line, we understand the value of sacred, the transcendent dimension. Under the horizontal direction - wealth.) Non-civilization is not long enough to answer the call, the West is largely due to the dominance of vertical measurement above the horizontal. The answer, the contours of which appear to have been the end of the last century, is to try to accelerate the socio-cultural dynamics, which includes a form of economic life, social organization, technology, etc., while maintaining the vertical measurement of the vital strategies, its religious (primarily religious) component .
      It should be noted that in the civilization of the desire to catch up and overtake State modernize without losing, or at least not radically transforming traditional civilizational identity is rather problematic. In the case of practical implementation of these transformational projects achieved, usually at the cost of extreme tension of forces of society and the state, received raznovektornoe direction of movement of the system can not function effectively in any of these planes. Continues today and infantilism mifologizm mass consciousness, and not only in Russia, continues to focus on the possibility of achieving the whole range of benefits of civilization and living standards, nothing significant will not be donating. As an illustration, we cite the statement of religious Arab-Islamic thinker Sayyid Qutb, described the ideal Muslim society, which in its material life would be in line with modern (Western) civilization, and the spirit, philosophy - religious beliefs, ideas about life, the goals of human existence , position of man in the universe, of its specific properties, rights and responsibilities - based on providentsializme .
      Thus, the processes of modernization there are generally three different meanings. As the internal development of the countries of Western Europe and North America, referring to the European New time catching up modernization of the country's practice, not related to the first group of countries, but also seeking to catch up with them, modern innovation processes, characteristic for the countries belonging to Western civilization.
      We are more interested in processes, combined in the second group, since Russia has in the past three centuries, albeit with popyatnymi movements, carried out its modernization project. This does not mean that outside the scope of our concerns are different facets of modernization, as the only system modernization in a broad context of possible understanding of individual modernization. Various authors have a wide range of views as to the definition of chronological framework of modernization, as well as its ontological foundation, which is most evident in the difference between the universal (stadialnogo) and local (civilized) approach.
      In the framework of classical modernization theories, dating back to the Christian tradition of universalism, a model of modernization processes are developed in a spirit of universal historical, common to all peoples and local lines of development of civilizations. Changing cultural identity was seen as an inevitable consequence of social and cultural transformation, was the kind of indicator of their radical. Variation in the historical and sociocultural realities had to give way to the invariants that are more or less successful copies of western social and cultural discourse. In 50 of the last century, J.-P. Sartre, while dominant in the intellectual environment of the submission, he wrote that a multiplicity of stories can be put in the ground only on the basis of their future together ... Our historic task in the center of polyvalent peace was to hasten the moment when history will have only one meaning when it will have a tendency to dissolve in specific people doing it together .
      Already 70 of the last century W. Moore, describing the dynamics of the non-societies, wrote that all go in one direction, despite the different pace, borders and barriers, upgrading - this is the rationalization of social organization and socio-cultural activity. Such a rational process leads to a convergence of development levels. Modernization, therefore, - the path to the convergence of countries with different historical destiny in a unified world community .
      In the framework of modern Western civilization is seen as an individualistic ideal of human existence, which is seeking to compete with God the Creator, which is cautious attitude in less secularize regions. Man may be non-world upgrades as concise and hypertrophied form of the Western civilization.
      Unifying approach to the modernization of society is non-ambivalent reaction outside the traditional range modernization of complementarity with respect to vesternizatsionnyh the efforts of national elites to their total rejection, the deterministic sociocultural, religious tradition of the place in the world of God and man: ... The idea of development in the Western sense is inadmissible for non-European cultures. The future is not the result of the dominance of Western civilization, with its understanding of freedom, civilization, rationality, etc., and will represent many world civilizations, contributing to the development of their knowledge, identity, and how to create a more humane, cost-effective and socially just society .
      Proposed future colors of different civilizations, each of which purport to be a little modernization is likely, but this state of affairs requires some dimensionless modernize at all, leading to the inability to identify and record its general combining features. Bedouins on camels with a mobile or satellite phone is not further proof that civilization spread to modernize this region of the world. A woman veiled, lacking the same voting rights as well, often deprived of a man driving a car west, does not mean the success of modernization.
       These details of everyday life reveal only the imitation of modernization processes and nothing more. On the motion to the content modernization may indicate institutional change, as supplemented by the radical change of mentality aforesaid bedouin. We believe that in spite of the opposition, and even direct resistance to modernization processes in several regions of the world can not be non abandon common to all packages modernization transformation, and here you can not hide behind a euphemism for a plurality of the emerging modern. As remarked in the midst of economic reforms, the father of Polish economic miracle L. Balcerowicz: Each country with a point of view, really special. But this does not mean that there is a successful method of treating a specific disease that afflicted its economy. The Chinese and Russians, of course, differ from each other, but if they are ill, for example, tuberculosis, they should be treated the same .
      This essential package of modernization transformation discussed outstanding Russian culture EA Orlova. She rightly believes that the socio-cultural processes that began in the most successful in the economic, social, political and geo-political sphere of states belonging to Western civilization, in the XX century, spread to a global scale. At the level of socio-cultural organization of society, these processes are manifested in the form of movement from industrialism to postindustrializmu in the economic sphere, in politics as a movement from authoritarian to democratic regimes, as in the legal transition from conventional to a legal right. The relevant changes in socio-relevant knowledge and world view: in the religious sphere is noticeable shift from the sacred to a secular world justification in philosophy - from a monistic to a pluralistic world outlook, in art - from the desire for stylistic unity to polistilistike in science - from objectivism to the anthropic principle. The combination of these broad social and cultural trends are known as upgrading .
      Data EA Orlova characteristics modernization processes, in our opinion, deserve serious, reasoned consideration. From our point of view, the processes of modernization include all the European New Age, that is about three centuries, not only during the XX century. In the economic sphere, the movement into a postindustrial society should be a time for the second half of last century. With regard to the political aspects of society the process of replacing authoritarian regimes to democracy took place in Europe during the same period, with the momentum at times replaced popyatnym have been, particularly in Germany, Spain, Italy, the Soviet Union in the first half of XX century. This process continues today, as evidenced by serving democratic revolutions in Eastern Europe and the States, formed in place of the Soviet Union at the turn of the 80-90-ies of the last century. In the legal sphere of society movement from conventional to a legal right is even more distant historical background of, primarily, the use of European countries of Roman law, in its main features have emerged during the Roman Empire.
      Turning to the important areas of social knowledge and ideology, we would note the following. Desakralizatsii peace process, the transition to a more secular world is also the rationale peers Modern Times, gradually accumulating power, totality, resulting in greater ratsionalistichnosti and pluralistic in the sociocultural aspects of society. In relation to the processes that occur throughout most of the XX century, in philosophy, art and science, our views coincide with the definitions of EA Orlova.
      In addition to EA Orlova, a leading Russian specialist in the study of modernization processes, the study involved and engaged in a number of Western scholars.
      So, are the most specific on the problems of civilization and modernization processes of modernization of the position of Western scholars, including and identification of their contents.
      His model offers a modern society E. Giddens, emphasizing the multiplicity of its institutional manifestations, which are reflected in the four institutional axes. The first axis is industrialism, E. Giddens defined as a system of social relations based on large-scale use of energy and technologies in production processes. The second institution is the axis of modern capitalism, seen as a system of production of goods based on competitive markets, production and specialization of labor. The third axis of modern society are institutions of public oversight, which are the foundation of efforts, compared with the period of feudalism, institutionalization, complicating the state power. Administrative system of modern society should be viewed in terms of control, implemented on the basis of the collection and use of information. The fourth dimension encompasses institutional forms of monopoly control over the means of the modern state of violence within their national borders.
      A. Giddens, considering the institutional principles of modern, identifies two factors: the nation-state and systematic capitalist production. Genealogical they go back to the specific features of European history. Analogies in other historical periods and cultural contexts are insignificant. They package the spread around the world was largely due to the power generated by them: No other, more traditional forms of community could not resist it, while maintaining complete isolation from global trends. Is moderniti exclusively Western phenomenon in terms of lifestyles, which contribute to the development of these two great forces convert? The direct answer to this question must be yes .
      However, a significant decline evropotsentrizma and even complete his expulsion from a number of scientific and philosophical discourses contributed pluralization known about the modernization. Thus arose the concept of multiple Nouveau, which, inter alia, said the well-known sociologist and theorist of modernization S. Eyzenshtadt. The applicability of various models of modernization is a source of excessive creativity, capabilities, options for future development.
      His view on the essential characteristics of modernization gives L. Pellikani. According to his view, modern - it is a civilization, which includes the autonomy of the subsystems, the right to vote, the institutionalization of social change, rationalizing, secular culture, the rule of law, the universalization of civil rights.
      D. Berger presents a definition of basic principles, which is based on the theory of modernization. Modernization is a primarily endogenous achieve a society in which the unfolding processes of modernization, modernization processes, typical for different parts of the socio-cultural sphere, different complementary, ie, support one another, the country, leading in the modernization process, not hinder those who are earlier, the processes of modernization have a common direction. From our point of view, here the most useful selection of institutional social change, the emergence of new, secular, autonomous, rational institutions. It is important to secularization of social and cultural spheres, the achievement of greater autonomy of the individual subsystems, the formation of a democratic political system based on the Law (Genesis to Roman) law, the universal declaration of human rights.
      In accordance with the classical modernization approaches of modernization has been accompanied by transplantation of Western political institutions, its genealogy, open society, the party of democracy. With their penetration into different segments sotsiokultury a gradual change of dominant type of personality, ie, its active type A is beginning to prevail numerically over passive contemplative (conventional) type B. At the forefront of public life goes militant personality, designed his life to rational framework, a person whose daily behavior is determined not ideal, but interests. Since the ideals of completely abstract and concrete interests, namely the transition from the domination of some by others, and allows to take root in modernizing country institution of parliamentary democracy. After all, in order to deliberately vote for a particular political party must clearly understand their interests and the extent to which they are expressed in the program and almost policies in this installment.
      Modernization also reinforces differences in elite subculture and neelity in the long term remains an open question, which side will move society in a time when major political subcultures raznonapravleny. The question to what extent to change socio-cultural tradition of the modernizing society, solved a posteriori, the planning may change, but the predictive vision of the end result is usually difficult. In any case, for the modernization transformation requires a significant historic time, because, first of all, the slow change of mentality.
      E. Allard, criticizing classical modernization theory, said the concept of multiple Nouveau, used in the works of L. Eyzenshtadta. The genealogy goes back to the modern Western world. Institutional forms include a democratic nation-state, market economy, education and scientific knowledge. However, the institutional sphere of modern society in many ways turned out to be different in specific societies. In most societies, the Far and Middle East, Africa, adopted a basic model of spatial development. Elites and neelity adopted the many important characteristics of the western modern, accepting and rejecting the choice of different elements based on the understanding of their own interests. Upgrading of non-accompanied by a process of interpretation and re-implanted inokulturnogo experience.
      According to the point of view, S. Eyzenshtadta, these processes have not led to the emergence of a universal civilization, but to different modifications of modernism. Changed attitude to cultural tradition, which is of obvious obstacles to the modernization has become perceived as a necessary condition for its success: Culture has ceased to be the main evil, she was good.
      For the current success and even more so for the consolidation of the interim results of modernization processes is very important political organization, transforming the society. Consideration of modernization processes in historical retrospect reveals that changes in the political organization of society are usually delayed and much overdue, considering not only as something secondary, it is quite possible to wait, but it is often as harmful, the fact that the subject displays from the state of almost absolute dependence on government.
       Dependent people, and the more slaves, in general, easier to administer and manage it in fact reduced to the impact of orders that are not discussed but implemented. It is appropriate here to recall the words of Peter I: Foreigners say that I have commanded slaves. It is not true: do not know all the circumstances. I commanded subjects, obey my orders, the orders contain a benefit and not harm the state. Must needs be to know how to manage people. English liberty is not in place, as the wall peas ... . Summarizing it should be noted that these ordinances can be hold as a benefit, and harm, but neither is the benefit or harm beyond the control of the company.
      Already in the XX century, albeit for different reasons, the elites of totalitarian regimes, not only aware, but rejected as decadent and damaging the principles of political organization of society modern. The role of civil society in ensuring the dynamic processes in all areas of life, including science, industry, military and humanitarian fields of culture, was understood fully only in the second half of XX century.
      This recognition was not absolute, the experience of a number of non-societies in the second half of XX century shows that they use ideological models and practices of everyday existence, dates back to traditionalism. The path of institutional and value-normative transformation has been long, even in Europe. Just remember that ultimately translated into modern Western Europe, only after the Second World War, when the orbit of the Euro-Atlantic world (liberal supertsivilizatsii, in the terminology of A. Akhiezer) joined West Germany.
      Note that in modernizing societies is often a coarsening implanted inokulturnyh samples, their reduction to a more primitive forms. U. Ganners considering a number of models of interaction between cultures - the donor and the recipient, providing, as the most common scenario peripheral corruption. The essence of this scenario is in the process of filtering the highest achievements of culture and values of the donor, fixing the level of cross-cultural interaction on the bottom plate, given the culture of the recipient.
      In the 30-ies of XX century on the material of Russian history to the same subject treated and LD Trotsky. In his view, nation vulgariziruet often borrowed from outside the achievements, adapting them to their more primitive culture. In doing so, the process of assimilation becomes controversial. Thus, the assimilation of certain elements of Western science and technology, not to mention the military and industrial loans, resulting in the Peter I to strengthen serfdom. European weapons and European loans - a product of high culture - led to increased Czarism becoming brake development of the country .
      In conclusion, we cite the view of one of the leading researchers Nouveau, a German Professor W. Beck: Modernization is not only to education, a centralized state power, the concentration of capital and all the more subtle interplay of the division of labor and market relations, mobility, mass consumption, and so village, but - here we come to the generalized model - to a triple personalization: the release of the historically given social forms and relations in the traditional sense of the circumstances of domination and the ( dimension Liberation), the loss of traditional stability in terms of effective knowledge faith and the accepted norms ( dimension razvolshebstvleniya) - and how would reverse the meaning of concepts - a new type of socio-cultural integration ( dimension control and reintegration) .
      The main submission related to the concept of modernization, we can turn to the question of the definition of Russia's model of modernization in a comprehensive cultural and civilizational specificities. Emphasize that the historical, political, sociological and economic aspects of the problem will be of interest to us primarily in the context of illustrating, explain and supplement the philosophical and cultural perspective of Russian modernization.
      II. The imperial and liberal model of modernization
      In describing the processes of modernization in Russia, a number of authors, including AA Kara-Murza and AG Vishnevsky, resorted to the term conservative modernization, vstraivaya Russia in a number of countries that are seeking a full-fledged entry into the modern focus to maintain or slow the transformation of traditional values, institutions and relations. There can hardly be doubted that the economic revolution, carried out in the USSR under the banner of building socialism , was conservative. But could it be otherwise? In order for the layers of XVII and XVIII centuries have covered all the subsequent historical layers, these layers should exist in society and to be powerful enough ... Conservative Revolution and there is a concession for the sake of modernization. By its very nature it can bring only a temporary solution, sooner or later be a complete review .
      Recall, perhaps, one of the most prominent theorists of the conservative revolution in the Weimar Republic E. Young, who understood it as the restoration of all basic laws and values, without which a person loses the connection with nature and God, and can not establish the true order. Equality must be replaced by internal values and social beliefs - faith in the justice of a hierarchical society, mechanical elections - the organic principle fyurerstva (vozhdizma), bureaucratic coercion - the responsibility of the true inner self, the massive luck - the right of people's identity . E. Jung believed that the most important historical task of the new German Reich will be the protection of the Christian faith and church infrastructure from the threat of the Bolsheviks, that is, for all its revolutionary new German state was to defend traditional values.
      We see that for a number of external social and cultural transformations in the Leninist-Stalinist era, you can see a lot of this conservative modernization, the comparison of Stalin's Soviet Union and Nazi Germany is extended, overlap in the ideological slogans, works of monumental propaganda, painting and many other fields art and life often affect its verbatim. But there are no less significant differences. In the first decades of the Soviet Union Bolsheviks did not differ a tendency to preserve or restore any property to the traditional way, they could refuse and did not proceed with the deal, including the go, and the apparent degeneration of Marxism.
      Time collecting stones, ie elements remaining from the traditional culture, now is they have before sunset the Soviet empire, died away when the belief in the feasibility of implementing ideokraticheskogo project. Having rejected the deal, the Bolsheviks were not able to reject a ideokraticheskogo imperial project of the first worldwide, and then localized to the borders, largely repeating the borders of imperial empire. He was the foundation on which kept the Soviet state and the devaluation which led to the collapse of the natural geographical and socio-cultural body of the empire.
      From our point of view, the use of the term conservative modernization in relation to Russia does not at least because the aim of dominating the line of Russian modernization is not the transformation of the system of Russian civilization in the modern. This distance was shown both before and after the Bolshevik revolution of 1917. Thus, L. Pellikani believed that the Bolshevik revolution in Russia was the radical attempt to stop the spread of Western culture. The Soviet system tried to take only the civilization of western science and technology, abandoning the rest. Industrial power of the Bolsheviks used to control the West and building a society hostile to individualism and secular , that is very hostile grounds modern. Similar position is of the well-known English scholar in the field of international relations K. Kouker, thinks that all non-aggravated communism in Russia. Lenin was the product of the Russian reaction against the West, not the catalyst for Westernization country .
      We do not believe it is correct with regard to Russia, and the use of the term catching development, although some authors working on the Russian modernization transformation, and believe that Russia is developing mainly in the framework of this model of modernization. Despite the fact that in some historical situations, the direction of movement in Europe (or U.S.) as advanced as Russia and catching the same, but when considering the situation in the context of a centuries-old historical interaction / combat Russia and the West are already members of that race did not seem runner, moving in one direction for different, but unidirectional tracks. Divergent paths of historical, civilizational paradigms of development is clear, so it is quite difficult to talk about catching development in the strict sense of the term.
      We believe that the task of understanding the nature of modernization processes in Russia requires a special term and put in a special typological series. Our central thesis is as follows.
      As a result of centuries of historical interaction with Western civilization in Russia has consistently played ambivalent situation in which socio-cultural foundation of the Russian civilization is defined and internally stabilized pendulum cycle, where the dominant imperial model of modernization with the alternate components of the model of liberal. This modernization process also has a stable dominant - an imperial model of modernization.
      What is an imperial model of modernization? To answer this question, it is necessary in order to determine what public education is an empire. The current practice of routine use of the word suffering famous eclecticism, the empire is called a multiple of its own domestic reasons public education. Penetrating of everyday language in scientific language, the notion of empire of its vagueness and dimensionless creates a situation of uncertainty content.
      In general, we agree with the typology of empires, the proposed IG Yakovenko, Empire classified into two main categories: colonial and ideokraticheskie (traditional). The colonial empires were rather kvaziimperiyami, when the metropolis is usually geographically removed from the colonies. As a manifestation of imperial colonial empire in many ways is the exploitation and robbing of colonies, but also as a side effect, in particular through the implementation of civilizing mission white man hailed, in particular, by R. Kipling. But the colonial empire and the colonial system as a whole are a local phenomenon of the era of extensive expansion novoevropeyskoy industrial civilization in order to dominate a region characterized by an abundance of natural resources.
      After reviewing the typology of empires, try to determine what actually constitutes a form of Russian statehood. Various authors from different perspectives to assess and evaluate the quality of imperial Russia and the USSR. Thus, GP Fedotov noted that Russia is a sort of empire. According to its national and geographic structure, it occupies a middle place between Britain and Austria-Hungary. Its non-Russian ownership is not separated from the seas. They constitute a direct continuation of the continental body, and an array of Russian population is not separated from the sharp feature inorodcheskih margins. But the Far East Turkestan or on their economic and even political significance, it is consistent with the colonies of Western states. Typological ie qualitative similarity with Austria-Hungary even further .
      In turn, Alain Besancon is not considered a colonial empire, the Soviet Union, leading to a convincing argument with which we largely agree: there is no Soviet empire. To have the empire, it is necessary to have a privileged people, mainly military methods of conquest and clear objectives. All these characteristics have the Roman, Spanish, British and French empires. Russian people do not have privileges. He has advantages as the most reliable ally of communism, and party leaders are mainly recruited from its ranks - even in the national republics. But these benefits are not rights .
      In both cases, the option is considered a colonial empire, and indeed there are arguments for opposing positions. From our point of view, the fact that Russia / Soviet Union has certain features, Near to her colonial empire, does not allow her name and classify. We completely agree with the point of view V. Galetskogo, according to which the Russian, Turkish, Austrian and Hungarian ethnic groups were imperoobrazuschimi, but they seem to still be primarily a tool, not the purpose of the imperial building. This is especially true for Russian and Turkish ethnic groups .
      It seems that the problem of determining the nature of Russia as an imperial (or neimperskoy) is as follows. Empire colonial significantly different from the empires ideokraticheskih. The notion of empire has ideokraticheskoy deeper informative content, because the purpose of its existence is a metaphysical task, to carry out on earth the divine project. The goals and values of the medieval empire are irrational. They are transcendental man . In this task roots and origins of the desire to achieve world domination in the name of transcendent tribute.
      It is a global, boundless celebration should be the dominant purpose of theocratic empire, and the practical, rational goals are rather supplementary and complementary. Ideokraticheskaya empire by definition worldwide, thus localizing the geographical boundary of the empire and unstable. For example, an American historian A. Ribera believes that imperial state based on conquest, their borders are not natural and cultural, and constitute war frontiry .
      The doctrine of world domination must, in the daily world through the Institute of imperial power, as a rule, always articulated clearly enough, but the ideological envelope, depending on the era is changing the form of a variety of designs. In the ancient world and ancient history, we see only the draft ideokraticheskoy Empire, the peak of its development it had reached after the end of antiquity. It was then that medieval Christianity and Islam have given reference (top) samples of the imperial state and the imperial ideology. From our point of view, with regard to Russia, you can talk as ideokraticheskoy empire, the empire of great messianic ideas, and to a lesser extent as a colonial empire.
      IG Yakovenko believes that the Russian government ... has expressed the imperial nature. Moscow kingdom (recovered from the collapse of the state in trouble) was the traditional empire. Russia 1721-1917 biennium. was a standard of the empire. In the last decade, the thesis of the imperial nature of the Soviet Union became a common . Viewpoint of the imperial nature of Russia / Soviet Union shares a number of western historians. As an illustration of this is a common position is the statement of American historian D. Rowley, believe that the and despotism, and the empire continued to exist in several other forms (up to 1991 inclusive - SG).
      Set in this regard is quite legitimate question: what factors contribute to the construction of imperial and, most importantly, the sustainable reproduction of the Empire? This is a complex of factors that play a primary or supportive for the process role. It should not be assumed that the successful series of aggressive wars, as well as the use of imperial titles and rhetoric are sufficient conditions for the establishment and any long-term existence of the empire. Declaration of the empire at the rhetoric on the one hand, and the mass distribution, establishment of an imperial consciousness, the other - different phenomena, not necessarily related to each other.
      It is the existence of a sustained and constantly playing the imperial consciousness makes possible the successful construction of the Empire, and its permanent revival. We do not detracts from this sense of the importance of geopolitical factors, without a happy coincidence that the dream of the creation or revival of the empire and remain dreams, the successful combination of geopolitical factors are as essential part of the conditional binomial imperial construction.
      The history is well known that in medieval Europe was unable to build any full-fledged theocratic empire, although attempts have been imperial construction throughout this period. European History checker kaleidoscopic change of imperial titles, for example, the French crusaders seized power in the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium), which is at the end of XVIII century historians called Latin empire. The famous French historian F. Braudel describes the first and second Genoese empire, consisting of Genoa itself and its trading factors. There was the Danish Empire, Carolingian Empire, and finally, the most well-known, the Holy Roman Empire. Europe throughout the Middle Ages sought to revive the Roman Empire, one of the ideologues of the establishment of a united Europe, the French politician Robert Schuman, noted that from the Carolingian Charles V to the idea to create the German Empire on the model of the Roman Empire given to their unreasonable effort that is mystic .
      However, neither the Carolingian nor Otton imperial building not crowned with the reappearance of a more or less plausible, authentic and, most importantly, sustainable design. Thus, even the most famous medieval empire in western Europe - the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation was a territorial entity with a volatile border, but the emperor did not have a permanent domain. As a result of the heroic efforts being made throughout the European Middle Ages, of a theocratic project in Europe to implement it was not possible.
      This fact does not preclude recurrence of the imperial tendencies in the New Europe and the Newest time, manifested, inter alia, in an attempt to implement the imperial project. In Europe, the XIX century. You can remember the imperial construction of Napoleon Bonaparte, in Europe in the XX .- anticipated thousands of years Hitlerite Third Reich. Sami attempts practical imperial construction were enough quickest, and created education imperial type - fragile. We believe that the imperial construction in Europe is a side line, a kind of historical appendectomy. We completely agree with the provision that the general line that dominated the historical development of European history advocated the formation of national states, while all the branches of this line showed its historical inefficiency: Europe - this is the only cultural world, which developed not by the imperial . What we call Asia - a zone of imperial development ... .
      Imperial building in Europe was only compensatory, an additional character, the principle of the imperial government was unable to compete effectively with the line, aimed at creating a national states. But this competition as a whole has proved useful, because the very idea of nation-state, growing out of medieval national monarchies, was able to get a practical embodiment of the historic dispute with universalistko-theocratic imperial project.
      Consequently, the general thrust of European history to the formation of nation-state imperial consciousness in the European countries has not been able to take root earnest and for long, which is not allowed for in the Europe, an effective policy of imperial construction. Even in Spain, with the Habsburgs, more than any other approaching the implementation of the imperial project, imperial consciousness does not become dominant in the public consciousness: for Philip II grants are not called by Emperor and King.
      Austrian Habsburgs sought to perpetuate in its territory of imperial tradition and the cultivation of the spirit of the empire and the Austro-Hungarian empire lasted for several centuries. Its stability and reproducibility over time, in no small measure contributed to the need for military deterrence and the Ottoman empire, as distinct peoples, living in Austria-Hungary, one by one to do so were not able to. But after the weakening and eventual fading Ottoman Empire was followed by relatively painless disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Austrian people are not preserved in any meaningful imperial complexes. Imperial relapse in Austrian history all the same had occurred, when during the incorporation of Austria in 1938, in Hitler's Third Reich was a slight burst of imperial sentiment, not in virtue of its temporal limitations of the serious consequences for the national consciousness.
      The colonial empires were even less able to create a historically stable imperial complexes. For example, in England, the successor to a huge colonial empire, nostalgia for the colonial-imperial majesty remains not so much in the mass, but in the minds of the noble subkulturnom layers. Even to a lesser extent, the legacy of imperial influence on modern Dutch, Belgians, Portuguese, built as well, and the English nation state and civil society: ... The nation is different from the Empire because Empire unites people through the service itself (via the royal case '), a nation - through the interdependence of each with each, through the relationship of self, private affairs .
      Thus, the internal developments of Western European history is largely determined by the interaction of dominant through the formation of national states, supplemented by part of the imperial tendencies. Exposure to Western European development has been a long standoff with the this, ie theocratic empire. First it was the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium), and the Arab Caliphate, the Ottoman Empire and the subsequent series Moskoviya (starting with Ivan the Terrible conquest of Kazan and Astrakhan khanate), the Russian empire, the Soviet Union. Turning to the question of the origins and meaning of Russian communism, H. A. Berdyaev quite rightly pointed out that Bolshevism is the third great event of Russian, Russian imperialism - the first event was the Moscow kingdom, the second phenomenon Petrovskaya empire.
      In theocratic empires imperial tendencies are dominant in nature, and the formation of nation-state is not an end, do not reach the mature forms of nation-building. All other elements of cultural and civilizational systems follow the opposite way, that is all that is dominant in Europe, and system-in the empires of peripheral and marginal and, consequently, on the contrary.
      In the course of history for many centuries, the basic characteristics of the major cultural and civilizational communities formed on the principle of self-determination in relation to their opposites. As an example of this approach is the point of view of BS Erasova: Islam and Hinduism, had existed for centuries side by side, often within a single society, improve their symbolism and faith in the constant interaction and the repulsion of each other.
      Europe would not be Europe, do not be in the neighborhood theocratic empire and it has not caused permanent fear among Europeans, which appears on various occasions, but always as part of the fear to a small to a larger! Russia has developed into a permanent interaction with Europe, more often this interaction occurs in the course of military action, rather than trade, but the war also is a private form of intercultural interaction, introducing the possibility for perception inokulturnogo experience. Without the impact of European Russia also would be developed in a different way.
      In this regard, it seems not only possible but also necessary to consider the issue of Russia's modernization is not as samorazvertyvayuschiysya processes taking place in itself as something natural, but as one of the aspects of aforesaid makroistoricheskogo dialectical interaction.
      What is the imperial modernization? Empire is not aimed to evolve in the direction of integration into civilization modern, in fact, she is afraid of the liberal transformation and internal weaknesses inherent in the adoption inokulturnyh the institutions of political democracy, the capitalist market, the need to make commitments in any significant amount of respect for human rights.
      The objectives of imperial modernization is not to be reborn, softening of the empire, it is important to take from the enemy only that will allow them to successfully fight (in a soft option - to compete). Imperial modernization does not imply a structural transformation of society, but mainly quantitative changes within those or other areas, primarily related to the needs of military construction. Moreover, the imperial modernization is carried out primarily in the stabilization and conservation of the basic characteristics of the empire, which served as inokulturnye borrowing, and the achievement of competitiveness of certain elements of cultural and civilizational system.
      Thus, with respect to private, but it is a representative case of imperial modernization of the Soviet period, LD Pellikani believes that if the modern society - the legal society, the communist states in their actions are not bound by any laws. Communist states was not the totalitarian version of the modern state, as has denied all the main principles of modern and borrows only the scientific and technological advances for the rule of the party bureaucracy .
      The transition as a result of the modernization of the empire to nation state, we have seen on the example of Turkey, where the national elite has realized the ineffectiveness of direct and destructive imperial policy: The State, which, stretching from East to West, combines the various national elements with different nature and culture , the internal organization of course wrong in its very basis, and is therefore invalid . Having gone through a long period of decline, and military defeats, Turkey has shown the world a rare example of a voluntary deconstruction theocratic empire, finding the strength to change the paradigm of imperial program of constructing the nation-state.
      Already in 1923, Mustafa (Kemal) Ataturk went on a radical break with the legacy of empire, abandoning the old script, which is a Turkish-Arab-Persian mix, based on the Arabic alphabet, replacing it with a new formal language that is based on the spoken form and is based in Latin. The creation of modern Turkey as a result of the reforms of Kemal Ataturk can be regarded as a paradigmatic model of civil nationalism ... Ataturk chose the West, most clearly expressed that the abolition of cultural and literary means through which to express themselves the Muslim elite of the empire. In recent decades, Turkey is actively moving towards integration into European political, economic, cultural space. At the same time, the possibility of a similar choice for Russia is hampered by inertial impact of the traditional feudal-imperial program.
      Imperial modernization is not related to deconstruction empire, on the contrary, its success contributed to the challenges of building and imperial reproduction in the new historical and sociocultural conditions. It is the specificity of the tasks can be considered as a special imperial modernization of historical and cultural phenomenon.
      We presented a general model of imperial modernization, of course, that the real historical and sociocultural processes proceed not so straightforward and mehanistichno. Confrontation and conflict are also a form of cultural and civilizational dialogue, and his dialectic does not fit tight in the mechanistic scheme. Deviations from these schemes do not abrogate the common logic, built in the context of the historical interaction with Europe, reflected in asymmetric and non-combination of imperial and liberal models of Russian modernization.
      Under the liberal model, we understand a type of perception of cultural and civilizational experience of the West, which involves the transformation of Russian society in a liberal direction. According to the point of view, J. Berbank, imaginary West has become a model for the imaginary or antimodelyu Russia , a binary opposition to cut off the possibility of other cultural projects. Thus, the historical dialectic of relations between Russia and the West in the context of modernization acquires another dimension, which only at first glance seems a purely internal dimension of Russian civilization.
      Use of the term the Russian civilization arguable. A number of researchers and the culture of civilizations, in particular Gy. Pomeranz, believe the contrary, however, a significant portion of researchers are taking this term. From our point of view, the term the Russian civilization is quite correct as a symbol subtsivilizatsii within the Eastern (or Orthodox) community of civilization.
      The imperial and liberal model of modernization in Russia's history is not just in a position consistent alternation, this sequence is not so linear. As for the effect of different trends, they almost always operate in parallel. At a time when the empire is going through a stage of imperial modernization inokulturnye elements illegitimate in relation to the socio-cultural elements of the imperial system, the system will inevitably penetrate: The desire to complete the transformation of the most archaic social institutions adjoining the negative perception of the Western experience of capitalist modernization. The desire to preserve the dignity of real or perceived national culture with one or other of the socio-cultural characteristics of the structure included in contradiction with the process even highly restricted military and administrative reforms .
      Penetrating into the Russian socio-cultural space, these elements contributes inokulturnye internal erosion of the imperial grounds, thereby preparing the ground for the subsequent surge of liberal modernization trends. In turn, the abundance inokulturnyh elements, accompanied by the weakening of the imperial grounds of social and cultural systems, ferment in society, and usually varying degrees of stringency of the repressive response of the imperial system.
      Constant penetration in the Russian socio-cultural system of European influence, infiltration in the Russian socio-cultural system of the West on its own genealogy of elements largely determine the ambivalent feelings of attraction and rejection, which is Russia against the West, which was ... for the Russians at the same time and the aim sought by, and purpose for which the shoot ... . What's curious, for the Russian Westerners West - rather, it embodied Due: West for Westerners - just the perfect point of view, rather than the cultural and geographic reality. At the other extreme, social and cultural life, a sign of changing perceptions of the Western civilization on the opposite: ... the West of us is evil. This encourages fear, active agent for the protection of our values, active to partitsipatsii and our highest Truth, stimulates fear of failure, which automatically leads to evil partitsipatsii to the West .
      It should be noted that the reflection on the Asian components of the Russian civilization in the public consciousness is expressed much more weakly than the constant debate about our relationship to Europe. It is noted that in Russia there are different inner Asia - Asian peoples and Asian territories, but all the same it can not be attributed to the East itself, because for many centuries, has modernized its Eurasian.
      Empire citizens are opposed to liberal civilization feelings of attraction and rejection. On the one hand, the empire seeks to acquire attractive benefits of a liberal civilization - trade, knowledge, technology, but on the other hand, rejects the imperial consciousness of the whole system, which produces these benefits. Faced with an abundance inokulturnyh borrowing Imperial sociocultural system is afraid of rebirth, because, to quantified levels inokulturnye elements of self and begin to play the system entirely. Here it is appropriate to recall T. Parsons, the process of segregation of imported sociocultural experience in modernizing countries, and noting that the constant attempts to divide imported inokulturny experience at an acceptable and not acceptable tends to preserve the values of a culture of high-level opening in the same time, the way the radical changes at the next level of value specifications, ie at the level of major functional subsystems .
      From our point of view, in Russia these changes at the level of major functional subsystems strictly dose because zaimstvuemoe shall operate within the narrow, tightly bounded through and in no case no root, otherwise disistemnye elements can make for an alternative system. Therefore, dosing and segregation inokulturnyh elements is a challenge to the decision by imperial consciousness always take very seriously.
      The existing mechanism for the maintenance of internal stability of Russia's socio-cultural system, the permanent replacement of imperial consciousness hinders innovation. System is protected from the environment through control and suppression of undesirable from the perspective of elites, social and cultural information. Statistics for the kingdom, the Russian empire, the Soviet Union sought to take inokulturnuyu, primarily western, information relating to the technological tool. Thus, reproduction was achieved by sociocultural and religious identity, delaying the historical and socio-cultural dynamics, where the image of education, devoid of any thorough education and citizenship, and recognized them (Moscow - SG), the authorities of the best for their nation and the most consonant with their way of government that the people would have been unlikely to move, if it has received some education and a better understanding of God, as well as a good device. To this end, the kings of destroying all means to improve it and try to avoid anything foreign, that could change the native traditions .
      At times, policy control and limitation of communication becomes a self-sufficiency, ie, coherent and purposeful segregation in the country's economic, political and cultural spheres. An example of this restrictive approach to information and human contact coming out of Europe, a great multitude, here we cite only a few of them. Thus, the messages of his time - Куранты, compiled on the basis of foreign sources in the Ambassadorial Order - until January 1703 were considered a state secret, is something that relates to controlling the spread of information. To illustrate the scope of restrictions on human contact are the following historical fact: for Ivan III introduced the death penalty for crossing the western border.
      This practice has been subsequently reproduced in the national history. Again, to illustrate the above address to the notes G. Fletcher: run away (from Moskovia - SG) is very difficult, because all the borders are protected by extremely vigilant, as the penalty for such an attempt, if the finding of guilty, there is the death penalty and confiscation of all property. Just learn to read and write, and then, very few. For the same reason they have not allowed foreigners to come to their state from a power-educated otherwise than on commercial relations, to marketing of its products and to get through them foreign goods . The new phase of historical development, in the XX century, the practice of monitoring, control and monopolization of information has become a daily practice of totalitarian regimes, institutional monopolization of true words, the ban on the stylistic diversity of ... included in the toolbox of totalitarian violence.
       Note that one of the contradictions inherent in the empire is malosochetaemyh in terms of formal logic in a single state organism basis of isolationism and aggression. On the one hand, the empire is characterized by a rigid metaphysical opposition between friends and foes and the enclosure of the past in every possible way, because the wisdom ellinskaya mother all the more wicked tenets. Thus, even in the XVII century. Arkhangelsk merchants, returning home after communicating with foreigners, committed in the special cleaning the church rites, the prevalence of this practice shows and Zigmund Gerbershteyn: Who ate with latinyanami, knowing it to be cleared of cleaning prayers ... The merchants and travelers, walking in the Latin countries not denied Communion, but admitted to it after reconciliation with the church through prayer Repented .
      On the other hand, this is a clear division in the world Hellenistic and barbarians, clean and unclean, righteous and unrighteous provokes empire to fight the world's evil, typically through the use of military force, expansionist expansion, since the empire ideokraticheskaya prefer to consider themselves as empire of the world. That is why the empire simply could not, has no domestic law to stand on the ground and space obzhivat within natural boundaries. On the British colonial expansion metaphorical and poetically described in Hannah Arendt: The expansion - it all ... I would have annexed the planet, if it could. This impulse to world domination acts with the immutability of natural instinct, and so bitter historical experience of world empires, absorbing more than able to digest (to settle), does not take into account the followers of the imperial cause.
      Sami subjects empire, imperial divide presentation, and believe that if it were not for the adverse historical circumstances, someone's mistakes and shortcomings in the field, the practical implementation of the project of world domination or at least control over vast territories, frame border empire, it is perhaps. The opinion shared by many Russians that, if not Belovezhskaya agreement (national betrayal and collusion behind the backs of peoples), the USSR could survive almost forever - the phenomenon of the same semantic number.
      It is contrary to these representations to increase in the late 80's - early 90-ies of XX century. Trends remember, obviously, contemporaries of the events. In 1990, M. Gefter, and many of those years in the Soviet Union and beyond presentiment close civilizational scrapped, another Russian revolt and geopolitical re: And to close, on the approach - as a challenge to Russia, as the unknown, as Volcano , which barely begins to smoke, but tomorrow this lavu vyvalit from its crater, which burn much more than the fate of men, than face the Azerbaijani-Armenian strife . Fortunately, the anticipation did not reflect the reality of the future, given the scale of geopolitical disruption, all were relatively peaceful.
      But suppose for a minute that there would be no betrayal, and was inspired patriotic impulse in Russia, Ukraine, the Caucasus ... Suppose that the Soviet army to fulfill the oath of allegiance to the Soviet Union and the security forces (military) methods attempt to bring order in the national former republics of the Union State. Willingness to participate in the events in such a scenario in the country was. In May 1991, Moscow hosted the first All-Russian Conference of soldiers-internationalists, adopted an address to the Army and Navy, which, inter alia, reads as follows: In the difficult conditions of the domestic environment the Army is a reliable guarantor of the inviolability of the Soviet Union, the key to civic harmony and peace , a bulwark of security for Community Development .
      Developments on the power scenario would mean a minimum of a decade spent in the trenches, ruined millions of lives, tens of millions of refugees and internally displaced persons, directly or indirectly involved in the conflict of different states and military units from foreign countries. Who in that situation can claim the name of patriot, a man who cares about his fellow citizens, and who - in the name of a potential war criminal (see the situation in former Yugoslavia)? From our point of view, the patriots, people who saved their people from fratricide, almost the first time in the history of the empire took no action after the fact, and proactive, have become Boris Yeltsin, Vladislav Shushkevich and Leonid Kravchuk. In addition, different geographical and cultural spaces, under the auspices of the empire - it is not even so much yesterday, but pozavcherashny stage of human development, XX century in general can be defined as the age of deconstruction empires.
      Try now to outline the ideal-typical image of soaked efflux due subject of empire. This image is a subject of social contradictions, and this inconsistency is more accented, manifest through the processes of modernization. Imperial power, exercising an imperial model of modernization, wants to see a totally obedient subject, having at the same time, active life position. For example, French historian Levek remarked that Peter further increased slavery Russians, claiming that they were similar to free people, and our contemporary, A. Besancon, already referring to the reign of Tsar Nicholas I, notes that the authorities unsuccessfully attempted to resolve Peter's dilemma remains - how make a slave, keeping him as such, to act consciously and freely.
      Note that this problem is not be resolved in principle, when a person takes the brunt of the decisions and bear full responsibility for them, he ceases to be a slave and becoming free, regardless of the transient historical circumstances. Such release of the Soviet people in the face of extraordinary circumstances, the war in its extreme form, Vasily Grossman wrote in the novel The life and destiny, internal feeling of liberation and has been the heroes of Viktor Nekrasov in the trenches of Stalingrad, when under fire, cut off from their bosses, commanders and commissars, people become free, ceased to be afraid to speak out about J. Stalin, the political repression of Soviet concentration camps.
      But the imperial powers believed otherwise, except briefly in the context of historical time breaks are not stopping this man based on a system of education, propaganda and repression, selective-breeding imperial subject, most recently embodied in the ideal-typical image of Soviet man. It must be combined selfless love for the State and at the same time there are no private interests, he should be optimistic, and sportiven altruistichen, and most importantly, at any time without any hesitation are ready to sacrifice their lives for the implementation of the next ideokraticheskogo project.
      Imperial Power, based on accumulated and monopolize power all of its individual members, inevitably deprive each of them, his strength, he takes his natural and human potential. He becomes a cog accumulating power of the machine, and it remains only to comfort ourselves thin reflections about the end of its mission, the very same machine is set up so that, just Submit to its domestic law, it can be gobbling it up the Earth .
      In addition, he has no property in the western legal sense. Everything he owns belongs to him only temporarily and conditionally, with the permission of authorities, which always has the right to select all, because such concepts as the right to private property and individual freedom in this system of values are virtually non-existent. At the verbal level and even at the level of written declarations and the legal acts they may be present, but the words do not have any institutional or mental reinforcements remain no more than pious declarations. Happiness ideal-typical empires are not subject to the rights and freedoms, not property, and selfless service to the proper, it is in the image of imperial power: Services for the State at the high post - this is the real Self in Russia.
       Mifologema ideal subject empire is one of the main chimeras imperial consciousness, showing a significant historical resistance, and play in new segments of historical and socio-cultural dynamics, with the appropriate time the ideological and lexical oposredovaniya. Moreover, projecting to various areas of public consciousness, the mifologema is pervasive. AF Losev, reflecting on his contemporary Russia XX century, saying that Russia is, of course, got a little bit to the West, but impersonal, Neglect, bezydeynogo, the stone is too much. Slavery lot .
       In an era of institutional modernization and expansion of value-normative Western civilization modernize spawned lasting to this day confrontation between cultural and institutional foundations of Western modernism on the one hand, and other civilizations, as for entire regions or individual countries - the other. With this expansion involves an additional phenomenon, which can not be true in the context of our discourse. This is the so-called impact imposed on development, though the term has no clear definition and is widely used культурологами, sociologists and political scientists. The effect is not imposed on the development of an independent model of modernization, this is largely an illusion of modernization associated with the different models. Often celebrate the presentation of the position that imitativnye form of a liberal society, the modernization of artificially brought in traditional societies, over time, assimilate, become a simulation of the original.
      Another VG Belinsky, comparing it to today's Moscow and St. Petersburg, noticed that in the northern capital of Western influence led to the fact that in everyday life include vulgar coffee and cigars, even dainty podgorodnye guys, and excellent floor ... without kofeyu strongly may live; podgorodnye peasant Petersburg already forgotten Russian national dance for the French personnel who are dancing to the sound of the harmonics, themselves derived from ... . Simulation forms of everyday life instilled in fairly easily, but how great a distance from the forms of learning to the learning content. The process of filling forms imitativnoy relevant content is not more than likely, although the Russian modernization has long taken the form of exemplary external manifestations of European culture. Element exemplary external forms of a foreign culture can be seen, in particular, as in the transformation of Peter I, and in the modernization transformations poslepetrovskogo period.
      At the same time in the event of termination of the external impact is often a process of rejection of liberal reforms imposed by the form of liberal way of life in some cases may disappear almost completely, leaving no visible trace. Moreover, antimodernizatsionnaya wave often throws society to historically lower than predmodernizatsionny. A classic example of this can be a traditional explosion, which occurred in the form of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, it is instructive example, but not the only one. Our own history provides many examples of this, and here appropriate to recall that Russia in the basis of their civilization - Asia, but the Asia Peter turned to Europe and westernize the top layer, leaving the people of Asia. As a result, when the empire collapsed, the European upper layer was almost entirely swept in and destroyed several techniques .
      Motive has been imposed on the development of Russia's historical practice in two ways. About him to speak at the fact that the empire is forced to borrow from the West, not only technology, but also a socio-cultural institutions in order to effectively confront the West in the same conditions, the world's strategic rivalry. Such borrowing can not be forced to call a direct effect imposed on the development, but also underestimate the impact inokulturnoe would be a grave mistake. Is not difficult to imagine how to build relations between Russia's imperial power and its subjects, if not an indirect and sometimes direct presence (pressure), the West, although the recall would require the Western countries for the Soviet Union after the signing of the Helsinki Final Act, inter alia, Humanitarian fourth basket: to respect human rights. And it was about human rights in the European, Western sense, which is spread over time in different habitats Civilizational world.
       As a practical respect for human rights was the most unnatural nature of imperial power in the Soviet, and pre-Soviet times, the internal aspect of Russian life is directly dependent on the influence of Europe, the Euro-Atlantic civilization as a whole. But the problem of exclusion of civil rights was not isolated, it stands alongside the permanent exclusion of imported Western institutions in Russia. Note that the institutions of representative democracy, the Court, the electoral system in Russia were mainly external, imitative form, which not only greatly changed their original (west) content, but also reduced the stability of these institutions in the face of antimodernizatsionnyh trends.
      It should address the issue of relating the development of military, industrial and social technologies to the evolution of Russia's imperial power. Famous Russian emigre philosopher-BP Vysheslavtsev, referring to the modern Western European life to him, quite rightly observed: What's new is there to change the living conditions of both? The answer is clear: it is an exact science (natural science and mathematical biology), and scientific technology, this science on which the industrialism. And, besides, and, above all, it is a rational organization of law and the state is a liberal democratic state, ensuring personal security and freedom, without which there is no creativity and invention and science .
      Turning to our most recently the Soviet past, remember how, on the basis of the mobilization model of development all the forces of the participants in this extreme process used to create a contemporary to the time of heavy industry. The Soviet empire was based on the modernization of the broadest use of slave labor, millions of Soviet prisoners built canals, polar and Siberian cities, mined uranium ore in their bones to build real socialism.
      Castle Soviet scientist who had worked in sharashke, threatened departure from the first circle the twelfth circle of Dante and imagination embodied in the reality of IV Stalin hell forces sought to limit the military-strategic parity with the modern, especially the United States, supporting scientific and technological level of the mid XX century. Soviet prisoners ensnared in twelfth circle, with his bare hands, without any means of protection obtained uranium ore, is guaranteed and painfully dying after a short period of time. This is only the extreme examples, among which is the myriad of broken human destinies, abyss of suffering, a great mortality, cumulatively leading to the depopulation of the nation. As a result of this extreme excess number of People's Forces of the Russian population by 1995 about 146 million to 270 million, which, according to experts, could live in our country in the same 1995. Direct and indirect losses in Russia over the last century amounted to about 121 million people.
      In the second half of XX century, has radically changed as a foreign policy context in which the USSR and the tasks facing the country. Most developed nations modernize gradually shift to a post-stage of development. In the book A one-dimensional man. Investigation of the ideology of advanced industrial society , having published in 1964, H. Marcuse remarked that We (the West - SG) society is the social gain of centrifugal force with the help of technology, rather than terror on the basis of the double majority and increasing efficiency living standards ... . The level of technology requires a post-emancipated mentality in the new environment of the scientist a slave can not be comparable in effectiveness to the work of academic freedom. Evolution of the Soviet system in the direction of greater tolerance, observed in the second half of the 50-ies of the last century, with the approach of individual elements of lifestyle to Western standards, took place not only because of its gradual transformation into a voluntary humanistic spirit. In many ways, this transformation itself was due to the forced adaptation of the system to the new historical circumstances, becoming a sort of inevitable and pay for the military and political competitiveness.
      The Soviet government, the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee began to act with caution in the West, which has gradually become the largest trading partner and has always been a country of new technologies, production of which is becoming increasingly important. For example, after working in the West, the main AI Solzhenitsyn Gulag Archipelago members of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee extensively discussed the question of what to do in these circumstances, with such well-known Russian writer, who by that time, the winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature. All proposals, in essence, boiled down to two: to send abroad and tried in the USSR to the fullest extent of the Soviet law. And to condemn, was sent to Verhoyansk as suggested TOV. Kosygin, because there nobody will go out of foreign correspondents: a very cold. But, as noted with great regret TOV. Solomentsev, Solzhenitsyn - the mothers of the enemy of the Soviet Union. If it were not for foreign equities, which is carrying out the Soviet Union, it could be, of course, resolve the issue without delay. But any decision will affect our foreign policy actions? .
      Thus, domestic policies in the Soviet Union found itself in a dependence on foreign policy, the international context in which to operate the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Department of the CPSU Central Committee. It turned out that in the industrial, but more so in post-industrial world achieve military and technological efficiency of internal erosion accompanies imperial system activates the effect imposed on the development is manifested primarily in the spread of disistemnyh elements brought by westernization.
      In turn, Russian, and Soviet empires were imposed by the source of development in relation to their colonies and semi-internal and external Asia. A classic example is the modernization of Soviet Central Asia. In 70 of the last century it seemed that the traditional way in those countries ever went to the past, Islamic foundations of culture looked weak, preserving rather implicitly. Nevertheless, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, these countries quickly revert to their natural historical condition, ie medieval feudal despotism, and neighboring Afghanistan after the withdrawal of Soviet troops back to the situation of clan-tribal fragmentation that has characterized it for millennia, and which at the time of frozen Russian-British rivalry, then the logic of the Cold War.
      Today, the maximum self-base characteristics of the social and cultural systems of Central Asian states is constrained only to their existence in the contemporary international order, not dissimilar to the favors of the medieval forms of isolationism. At the same time, in the case of easing the international community's attention to humanitarian issues externally imposed attributes liberal political system, which in this soil is difficult to name even decorative, would simply be eliminated. As the undermining of basic principles on which the empire is organized and civilized lifestyle shift from periphery to the center, more and more people involved in the first of its orbit, are able to live more in line with its socio-cultural tradition. It is self that tradition does not allow these people to participate in the global division of labor to be part of modernizing the world: logical to assume that in the XXI century will be the dumping of entire sectors and areas that can not be socially and economically dispose but easier and cheaper to throw.
      We believe that the modernization process in the Russian society in the external dimension determined teleology of imperial West confrontation, which is expressed in an ambivalent relation of attraction and repulsion. In the internal dimension of modernization process determined the dynamics of the dominant imperial struggle and serving as components of a liberal model of modernization. This is the general scheme, how this pattern manifests itself in history, is dedicated to our next section.
      III. The historical sequence of Russian modernization
      Before turning to the historical sequence of Russian modernization and transformation to analyze the empirical evidence on the rotation and the complementarity of the imperial and liberal models of modernization, I would like to express their attitude to one quite common in academic circles and okolonauchnyh view historical aberration. Its essence lies in the metaphysical consideration of Russia as an historically fixed and always equal to himself. However, the country's borders, the composition of its peoples, which corresponds to this composition of cultural and civilizational landscape changed repeatedly. In addition, In history, we see five different Russia: Russia Kiev, Russia Tartar period, Russia Moscow, Russia of Peter the Great, emperor, and, finally, the new Soviet Russia. Ignoring these changes is a step towards mythologization stories. But in the myth and not history itself in its development, but a single divine imperial power, at any point in time containing the full of their historical existence.
       Such a static view of Russian history and culture, from our point of view, is not legitimate, it does not take into account changes under the influence of historical and cultural dynamics: Live culture can not be a repetition of the past - it always gives rise to structurally and functionally new systems and texts . But she can not hold the memory of the past . However, the mythological view of the continuity of Russian history is due to persistently reproducing the mental stereotypes people's consciousness and their corresponding forms of social relations.
      Mental stereotypes encountered even in the era of Kievan Rus, gained strength and established during the time of elevation of Moscow and a Russian national on the basis of various ethnic groups in the territory of the Vladimir-Suzdal principality and its surrounding areas. Collection of land and the formation of public-type model for Moscow institutionalize these trends when they reproduce in a variety of historical turmoil, geographical and ethno-cultural transformations. In considering the replacement of traditional programs, and again organizing society, A. Akhiezer notes that high degree of stability is guaranteed not only an appropriate cultural orientation to the reproduction of some absolute , natural is always around, not only the power of historical inertia but the system of repression that arise in conjunction with the culture .
      These universal programs in a variety of historical circumstances, are reproduced fairly regularly with a greater or lesser degree of completeness. In particular, Boris Kagarlitsky believes that these peculiarities of Russian history may identify primarily in the approach of world, and they explained the situation of Russia in the peripheral mirosisteme and as a peripheral part in the international division of labor and trade.
      One of the consequences of selective inokulturnogo borrowing was formed huge gap between the constant pull to the European level of military-technical potential and the backwardness of social life. Everyday life of the bulk of people who were peasants, until the October Revolution of 1917, largely preserved archaic pagan way, traces of which persist in some subcultures today. Changes in people's everyday lives were unplanned, primarily as a result of adverse consequences of imperial modernization. This process was the in form inokulturnyh (subkulturnyh) borrowings, as well as a forced adaptation of any party to the actual social life at the moment, the challenges of the imperial building.
       For example, VI Lenin pointed to the fact that illiterate person stands outside the policy and therefore must learn the alphabet. Without this there can be no policy , ie the need to achieve universal literacy is attributable, above all, the challenges of the moment that the man was able to read the decrees and orders of the Soviet regime that has continued the tradition of secular form of the Middle Ages, when people had to know the instrument primarily in order to read the Scriptures. Decree of the Council of People's Commissars On the elimination of illiteracy among the population of the Russian Federation dated 26.12.1919 set of sanctions for the reluctance to learn to read and write, that is, for the avoidance of actual participation in social and political life of the USSR: deviation from the duties established by this decree ... brought to criminal responsibility .
      Adherence to the imperial model of modernization, as a rule, does not lead to a change in people's everyday lives, Europeanization suffered mostly elite. Only a brief period of liberal modernizations reformers consciously sought not only to reform the public, and public life.
      From our point of view, consideration of the interaction between two models of Russia's modernization can not start from the time they entered into use the word modernization. Since the very phenomenon vzaimoperepleteniya two models of modernization is closely linked to the phenomenon of reformation and the formation of the specifics of Russia's cultural and civilizational grounds, the consideration of Russia's modernization must begin with its history.
      Let's begin. Here is how Professor. M. H. Speransky described Moscow XV century (it - SG) produces one-sided, behind the type of medieval миросозерцания based on ill-understood or not understood vizantinizma: Religious and later national, exclusiveness, the formal relationship to the ideas of religion, bukvalistika, rites, lack of education, is replaced only dogmatism - all common features of the medieval mind, but brought to the one-sided, sometimes deformity .
      Reign of Tsar Ivan III can be described as syncretic characterized neraschlenennostyu trends, which will be positioned as the opposite. We see that the hand, forms and relations of social and economic life, the European side was sufficiently strong in Russian life. About Moscow Athens, European century Russian medieval king-absorbing told pervostroitele A. Janov. But there were other trends associated with common already by that time the tradition of despotism and arbitrary authority (Ivan jailed his grandson Dmitry, not to mention the executions and the imprisonment of people of lower rank, massive forced relocation of inhabitants of Novgorod, Tver, Vyatka ...) .
      Although the policy was against the inhabitants of the conquered territories seems quite liberal in comparison with that carried out his successor Grand Prince Vasili and the more the son of Basil Государем and sovereign Grand Prince Ivan IV (Grozny). From observations on the passing of then Moskovia J. Fletcher, belonging to the inhabitants of these lands have already collected link Moscow: He (Basil - SG) interrupted and took with them three out of four residents, whom after the lost or sold the Tartars, he served in the war . Against the background of these ambivalent tendencies and strengthened the imperial idea, thanks in no small measure contributed to the marriage of Ivan III, Sophia Paleolog with subsequent legitimization of derzhavopriemstva fallen under the blows of the Turkish Ottoman May 29, 1453 Constantinople.
      From these well-known historical peripeteia turn the key in our discourse the question of the relationship between two models of modernization, the formation and confrontation of two alternative lines of development of Russian culture and society. If the era of Ivan III in its sinkretichnosti contained a multitude of options for development, including the imperial and protoliberalnuyu trends, in the era of Ivan IV (Grozny), Russia's first society is not well aware of this turn as a meaningful choice, turned to aziatchine of Europeanism. The initial period of Ivan IV began a unique algorithm of Russian reformation, rather regularly reproducing in subsequent stories. The young monarch-reformer gathers around him an informal circle of associates to implement the reforms, to a certain extent, which are liberal in nature.
      Reforms fail for various reasons, primarily their rejects the system, but the consequences of this exclusion is also exacerbated by inconsistency and shortsightedness of the reformers. Ivan IV was disappointing in reform and transition to the authoritarian policies of oppression, not only real but also of potential opponents, their servants, their farmers, their friends and family. In the brutality of the policy in the extent of the repression and smertoubiystv king far beyond the usual at that time in the Moskovia of governance. At this stage the rule of Ivan IV, the reformers lost: who to block, who is in exile, who in the monastery.
      All we know, and another example of the permission dillemy subject and the despotic power of Russia, demonstrated A. Kurba - flight abroad. And from abroad can be a tyrant, and rebuke, it is also a great social-political and literary tradition, which had begun with letters of the former favorite of the king and hero of Kazan and the Livonian wars AM Kurba of Ivan IV: The custom of the princes of Moscow's long-desired his brothers and destroy their blood for the poor and cursed fiefdom, nesytstva for her .
      The reform project, developed by the Government Selected happy, have a kind of prototype for all subsequent liberal reforms, substantive core of the liberal project, which for centuries has inspired the most dynamic and bourgeois-oriented part of Russian society. The liberal project in Russia has always existed inseparably from the ideology of rapprochement with Europe, and it was unable to complete in different periods of Russian history.
      How to win money-grubber close to the Russian society, the way of church reformation, and the imperial reaction slapped down in the initial phase defeodalizatsiyu begun, in particular, Zemskov reform. Administrative, military and, above all, Zemskaya, the reforms planned by the Government of the Selected glad to have been dictated by an awareness not only of military-technical, but also political and social backwardness of Europe. Although the logic and methods of their implementation, to some extent maintain the relationship with the logic and methods characteristic of the imperial model of modernization, reforms contained in themselves and some liberal elements.
      Nevertheless, Russia has carried out in those years the most important historical choice, which is in the rejection of liberal development model that has been most adversely affected in the future, until the civilizational catastrophe that followed the October 1917: ... is it our generation does not pay now for the sins Ancient Moscow? Is despotism successors Kalita, destroying and self-parts, and free cities, giving independence boyarstva and the Church - have not led to the social body Sclerosis empire, to the impotence of the middle classes and the chernosotennomu folk style Bolshevik revolution ?
      Since the Government has failed the Selected happy in Russian history, there is desire to slow down the historical and socio-cultural dynamics, while maintaining consensus among the movement and the movement back to the normal since the result: the defeat of the reformers and the victory of conservative antireformatorskoy part of the power elite. Metropolitan Makarov, head of the hierarchy, has become a confidant, spiritual king. Day after day, hard and methodically instilled in him that he, the king of Moscow, omnipotent, and omnipotence, that it all - slaves . Tsar Ivan was diligent student, later, responding to a letter revealing AM Kurba, he repeated in different variations remembered the words of Metropolitan: Because you are in its besosostavnoy literacy repeat all the same thing, turning different rhetoric, and so and этак, the kind you thought that the slave masters have the power beyond ... This Is the conscience of the leper, to his kingdom in his hand, and to his servants not to rule? What a nasty mind - do not want to be has its slaves? Is this orthodoxy presvetloe - be under the authority of the slaves? .
      Later transfer occurred severity of hostilities in the eastern part of Russia on its western border, which had an impact on all further development of the country. The significance of changes in military and strategic priorities by Ivan IV, beyond the specific historical situation, but for the contemporary consequences of these events have been devastating: the Crimean Tatars opened the way to Moscow. Crimean khan Devlet-weight devastated the central part of the State, burned Moscow, and most importantly, many people died incredible: more than one hundred and twenty thousand soldiers and citizens, except for the wives, children and rural residents who fled to Moscow from the enemy, and nearly all the eight thousand .
      It was with Ivan IV (Grozny) and his conquest of Kazan and Astrakhan khanates, since the beginning of the entry in the Tartarian heritage and the beginning of the Russian Empire, begins long before the announcement in 1721 by Emperor Peter I. Most modern Western historians have precisely the point of view. Note that we also share this view with regard to the chronological beginning and the contents of the imperial building in the realm of the Moscow / Russia.
      Reformed activity Boris Godunov at the beginning of his reign, ambivalent, it is closely intertwined not received conceptual opposition as imperial, and protoliberalnye trend. Despite the ambivalence internal reforms, in general, possible to argue that in its general direction they are closer to protoliberalnomu direction. This direction can not, of course, among such authorities act as the abolition of the right to move a farmer from one owner to another in Yuryev day, but it is can be considered the promotion of printing affairs, education, the invitation to the permanent residence of aliens and a policy aimed convergence with Europe.
      Short period of Godunov, you can remember if only because he refused to continue the imperial-despotic terror and take feasible measures to eliminate its consequences. His reign once again reveals a certain regularity, is that the liberal Russia's rulers act hesitantly. This indecisiveness is not only situational, due to external causes, but causes internal properties. At the critical moment of historical figures, it is attributable to the liberal line of Russian modernization of Boris Godunov to MS Gorbachev, trying to hold ambivalent policy of combining a desire for liberal reforms, and pledged in the system, and their own desire to conservative imperial rolls, physiological fear of reforming the system. Thus, the American historian Francis Vchislo remarked that ... features police mentality (already in the era of Great Reforms 1860 - 1870-ies - SG) found ... and the outlook of the reformers, because in their opinion was based on the recognition primacy of public interest and conservation (conservation) of the order and stability . We are told succinctly - but emko true.
      In the second, the crisis period of Boris Godunov (since 1602) istonchalas postepennno disintegrated and the liberal component of its policy, and imperial, despotic elements have become increasingly, especially when there was a direct threat to personal security and power. Finally had expressed a liberal tinge of reform were stopped chaos coming Distemper time.
      In the context of our discourse can not ignore such a vivid historical figure as the False Dmitry I. The figure is as Poruchik Kizhe, surrounded by a variety of assumptions that are as mythological as well the historical and literary character. About False Dmitry I, brought up outside the traditions of the Moscow State and the case will have on its throne, NI Kostomarov wrote as follows: He spoke with Russian voice of freedom ... all of this was to learn Russian with new concepts, he pointed to a different life. During his kingdom, which lasted 331 days, I Falsdmitry showed himself a strong liberal reformer wing than its predecessor (ie, Boris Godunov), he was surprised boyars severity and liveliness of mind in the affairs of state. Sovereign proshlets often overlooked: they insulted their derision, blamed ignorance, teasing praise Inozemtsev and firmly, that the Russians should be their students, to go into other people's land, see, watch, and appear to deserve the name of the people .
       In considering the hypothesis of our study, according to which of the two models of modernization - the imperial and liberal - Russia, according to the dominant tradition, focuses mainly on the imperial model, we note that in the works of Russian historians, more or less understood that divide imperial ideology periods liberal reforms and their proponents are as clear alien blotches, the time of chaos and disorder. In its extreme expression of this ideology sees periods of liberal modernization as local manifestations of the world's evil. This is the official version of the beginning of the XVII century. Stipulates that self-Dmitry is none other than the monk rasstriga, a thief and a drunkard Grishka rag, was pronounced propagandistic nature. Contemporaries of events related to this version in many ways, including quite skeptical, but all of us, thanks to Alexander Pushkin, remember this is the way Falsdmitry I.
      Note that the shift from freedom to a more autocratic state and aggressive imperial isolationism, which occurred at the cathedral in 1613 in those years was available squandered a historic opportunity to send a vector of development of Russia to Europe, for example, had to hold a large component of liberal reform plan Mikhail Saltykov . Each unrealized for that kind of puts off Russia from Europe, laying the foundation for further backlog in the various fields of life, the backlog, which subsequently had to overcome so painfully and so dearly.
      Recognizing the prepared soil, the availability of objective and subjective conditions for reforms Petrovskie usually have in mind the ongoing reforms in the second half of the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich, which is largely true. Even in the period dopetrovsky been significant mining, introduced shelves foreign order, European military ranks, the elements of European-style clothing and much more: So feel the need to Moscow in European art and comfort, and later in science education. We started foreign military officer and a German gun, and finished the German ballet and Latin grammar .
      In the context of our discourse is of interest during the Sophia, which was a regular and then almost forgotten attempt liberal predmodernizatsii. Not going into a detailed statement of factual basis of events, we note that much of what was done with Alexei Mikhailovich and then developed by his immediate successor, was destroyed imperial modernization Peter I. We are more interested in not how and what specifically predecessors Peter I anticipated his reforms, but the direction of these reforms.
      Do not conceal his critical attitude towards staromoskovskim order Afanasi L. Ordin-Naschekin, Rtischev, their lesser-known contemporaries, boyars BI Morozov, N. Romanov, A. Matveev, and later the Russian Vasily Golitsyn Westerners move to Russia Europe. Describing the personality and breadth of the reform plans, Vasily V. Golitsyn, Polish ambassador Neville, who had arrived in Moscow in 1689, wrote: If I wanted to write all that is learned about the prince, I would never have finished, suffice it to say that he wanted the population desert, to enrich the poor, people turn into savages, cowards of the brave, wasteland and stone huts in the House .
      It was during this period, together with the strengthening of the geopolitical position, the conclusion of peace with Poland and the return of Kiev, was developed liberal project peasant reform. Under the project farmers were in possession of the land, and the service were limited to annual tax imperial modernization of Peter I, by contrast, brought zakreposchenie to the extreme, the liberal plan to reform public life are not development, VV Golitsyn did not become associates of Peter I. Even if Sofia were eliminated parochialism and medieval court of cruelty - the criminals stop to chop off hands, feet and fingers, which is a daily practice of inquiry and summary executions, typical of Peter's period of our history, it was much more humane. When Fyodor started a project creating Slavonic-Greek-Latin Academy, which was laid vsesoslovnogo idea of a liberal education, and not Sofia, and Natalia Naryshkin - the mother of Peter, in fact, ruled since the overthrow of Sophia, and until his death in 1694, should be considered a symbol of stagnation, ignorance, and conservatism.
      Based on the internal conditions of the country's development, kontrreformatorskoe movement following the overthrow of Sophia, with a high probability to lead to another rejection of predmodernizatsionnyh transformations. However, in the context of the changing external environment, above all, European Russia was to meet the new challenges of growing geopolitical confrontation Europe. Relying on only one-traditionalist izolyatsionistkuyu policies to achieve this it was virtually impossible.
      The point is that beginning at least with the XVIII century, the country that historically do not belong to the Western world, including Russia, are facing the challenge of Western civilization modern, giving a more or less successful response to the dramatic acceleration of the socio-cultural dynamics. The people of non-part of the world were forced to transform, to change to prevent adaptation to emerging within Western civilization of his new world of social and cultural traditions. Different parts of the world is non-painful a process of modernization, but in these circumstances, the full, authentic reproduction of the social and cultural traditions would be in the following sections of the historical and sociocultural dynamics of the loss of both the factual and the nominal independence of the state, ie colonial dependence on more developed nation or a group of Art Nouveau. F. Fukuyama calls the forced changes of modernization, which are less developed countries, defense modernization. Modernization is largely a form of adaptive response of the Russian socio-cultural system to the challenge of Western civilization. Russian modernization , which began in the XVIII century - the first example of adjusting backward country to the Western European modernist revolution.
      In the context of underdevelopment Russia from the West tend to have a view of its military-technical and economic-technological aspects, since this is an area where modernization changes took place in the first place. The desire for reform in military-technical field was due to the inability of the military competition with Europe. At the stage of modernization of the imperial Russia borrowed European technology, instrumental knowledge, relevant to industry, science, military affairs, as well as some elements of life and way of life: The scientific revolution came to Russia after the war, and natural sciences for many years considered primarily support for military affairs .
      In addition, Russian authorities took sluzhiloe class is prepared to withstand competition from Europe. To achieve this goal, and to match more complex tasks of public education becomes more diverse. To book artillery and infantry sergeant memo adds some common culture .
      Note that a technological breakthrough that took place in an era Petrovskie reforms had not been backed up by corresponding changes in the political system and social life, it has been building on precarious foundations. In subsequent historical eras of imperial power at the cost prohibitive voltage folk have been able to establish a competitive force in the Western Army and the military contracting industry, but this success has always been local, it did not conform to any level of development of civilian industries, as it was during the Soviet period of our history, nor the level of development of society as it was in pre-Soviet Russia.
      The reforms of Peter I gave a sample of the imperial model of modernization, the first executed in the most complete form, get rid of the conscious liberal inclusions; autocracy and serfdom were under Peter the tools of modernization. But some of the results of these reforms, regardless of the intentions of the reformers, brought to the Russian society and the liberal, disistemnye against imperial system elements. When Peter greatness Empire remained the primary objective, and the society a means to implement it. In this coordinate system the state - the most significant, dominant values, ruler embodies in his person the idea of authority and the public good, is standing on the lower levels of the social scale, a special value to the government is not.
      Formula imperial mobilization breakthrough, which sets out precisely such a relationship between man and power, insignificant human life, the underlying vyzrevavshaya in the Moscow model of statehood, when Peter I resulted in the most explicit forms. Thus, GV Plekhanov, describing Elizabeth reforms rightly remarked: Evropeizuya Russia, and Peter is brought to the extremes of the line of her order, which brings together its oriental despotism ... Stroy characterized by a predominance of this line, directly opposite the democratic: it is enslaved, all except one, whereas in democracy, all free, at least, de jure .
      At the time, not without reason to believe that the borders of Europe outlines the boundaries of the spread of Magdeburg law. In medieval Europe, the legal tradition is combined with a developed urban culture, in contrast to Russia, where the city, but there was no full-fledged urban society and, moreover, Magdeburg law. As Russia is not a developed infrastructure of urban society as well, beginning with the liberation peasant reform of 1861, and almost until the end of the last century is not the individuals, groups and social strata, and the entire town and much of the village have been marginalized, the active - transition . Even in a purely statistical Russia has become predominantly urban country, only to the 60 th years of XX century.
      But let us return to evaluation of some of the results of modernization transformation of Russian Emperor and autocrat of Peter I. A narrow layer of educated urban intellectuals poslepetrovskogo time, with all its impact on the outlook of educated society itself could become a social force that could transform the socio-cultural foundation of society. Large Orthodox clergy are not able to play the role of social forces, capable to realize the historical society, rather than authorities. The interests of the authorities and have been for him the interests of society, but for the majority of subjects empire Western values remained somewhat outside, the society in many ways remains archaic, traditional beliefs and values.
      As a result of imperial modernization Peter I grew existed by the time gap between the authorities and society, because society has undergone an equally radical transformation. But power has changed mostly on the external level, according to AA Kizevettera, from the outer shell of the new office jargon you looking for the old Moscow-Russia, safely passing over the threshold of the XVIII century and conveniently placed in a new framework for the St. Petersburg empire. Russian society was not internally united, and to Peter I, but after Peter the Great's imperial phase of modernization civilizational divisions within Russian society, sharply increased apparent then in the context of actual historical realities and challenges of the new historical epoch. Within this dualistic in its grounds the picture of the world The Power is doomed to constant relapses ideokraticheskogo project, since only the desire for this kind of great metaphysical purposes justifies its archaic in its genesis-absolutist imperial status.
      The desire to implement the next ideokraticheskogo project is justified and the authorities of indifference towards the social dimensions such as the legality, moralizm or even simple common sense. Bereft of a strong liberal, has remained largely traditional Russian society is almost a murmur takes power and status of the proposed model of civilization split. A. Tolstoy wrote in 1918 about the results Petrovskie reforms: But it is still happening is not something like a proud Peter, Russia was not included, elegant and strong, for a feast of great powers. And pull his hair, red and distracted from the horror and despair, brought new families into abject and unequal form - raboyu. And no matter how many Russian guns thundered ominously, led, and that slavery was humiliated before the world a great country and spread of the Vistula River to the Wall of China .
      Attempts limits of absolutism in poslepetrovsky period should not be taken for a real revitalization of liberal tendencies, but rather to streamline the process of power relations within the system. Surrounding the successor of Peter I, traditionally provided few public figures, barely visible in the shadow of the great reformer, to address the most clear distortions in the State, as the preceding period of imperial modernization, accompanied by a number of successful military companies, has led to the militarization of the country, depleting its resources.
      Thus, during the reign of Peter I his military expeditions continually absorbed 80 - 85% of income in Russia, but once (in 1705) cost and 96%. An element of the demilitarization of historical merit successor Tsar-reformer, and limited, since the imperial model of modernization has continued to grow and self. It turned out that the great reformer not used until the end of mobilization capabilities to the feudal imperial system, with Anne Ioannovna in 1736 came a decree restraining manufacturer for all free mechanic forever with seed. The imperial model, even from the manufacturers themselves makes slaves, a nation attached to the conditional left them in possession of production for service theocracy (in the person of the same imperial power). Let us remember the Soviet directors, in a literal sense, the head responsible for the implementation of Gosplan or modern bankers and owners factories, newspapers, steamers, appointed directly to the authorities. That is, from the authorities, there were some oligarchic state and oligarchs.
      Disproportionate man, and in this sense, anti-social model in the early period poslepetrovsky took a dominant position in the mentality of almost all sectors of society. And the emergence of certain rights of the Russian nobility of the order of liberty gentry has not changed the feudal nature of the ruling elite. The fact that it was progressive to Europe XII - XIII century to XVIII century, so Russia is no longer able. Ensuring the relative immunity of corporate feudal elite, which is only slightly used a historical opportunity for samotransformatsii in the liberal modernization, had other non-European implications. The Russian elite has transformed itself mainly in its feudal nature and functions, not to strive for greater permeability of their social strata, soprotivlyalyayas bourgeois degeneration and replenish their ranks come from low-status social groups.
      A well-known American sociologist Richard Lashmann, whose book Capitalists in spite of himself has received the highest award of the American Sociological Association, shows how bourgeois degeneration of the feudal elites of Western Europe. Feudal lords themselves generation after generation to address their local communities, due to problems of political centralization, peasant unrest, and, above all, the proliferation of money. This process of adaptation to a changing external environment, politics, social relations, the economy has led to a certain stage to ensure that graphs, barons and bishops ... become titled Business and ... changed the whole social environment. In Russia, nothing of the sort in any significant scale is not happening.
      After a century from the time of the events in the USSR even in pozdnesovetsky period, there were unspoken decision is to determine the guarantees of personal integrity of the members of post-communist elites, and continues the traditions of feudal corporate immunity. This decision, taken after a bloody orgy of the Stalinist regime was dictated by the well-intentioned, but the withdrawal, beginning with a certain level of parthoznomenklatury from the rule of law was expressed feudal in nature. Are we closer to the European level of development of legal immunity, not only in the autocrat, but at close to its feudal clans? This issue is deliberately ritorichen since approximation is happening, rather, to Europe, XII-XIII century. This proximity to the inner Russia and Europe early Middle Ages and the contrast with the capitalist Europe Modern Times noted by Europeans: Europe the era of Peter I was different than in 1200. From Russia to Europe was internally similar, with Europe as a later time - mentally opposite .
      A more advanced technologically, and therefore enjoy a higher level of daily physical comfort Europe XVI-XVIII centuries attracted educated Russian society at that time a variety of temptations. Embodiment of European temptation to become clocks, telescopes, weapons, objects of everyday items, secular books, paintings by European masters, are included in the daily lives of the most dynamic and educated part of Russian elite. Reject inokonfessionalnoe effect, samples of socio-political structure of European society. But the implantation of the elements of European civilization in isolation from the generator to the whole - the process inefficient.
      The actual failure of a representative committee in the reign of Catherine II pointed to the defined boundaries of possible reforms, indicating the reaction of rejection vsesoslovnogo the mentality of the social and cultural transformations in the system, a liberal spirit. The response and reviewed by Catherine II the liberal direction of the reform were stopped Pugachevsky rebellion, a long time to end the period of enlightened absolutism, which is most consistent with its name. French Revolution finally led to her horror, and she resumed the old clamp. Authorities returned to the harsh repression and . E. Pugachev Rebellion was a manifestation of chaos, senseless and merciless (as A. Pushkin) Russian Revolt, by definition do not have any constructive program of action. GR Derzhavin after the death of Catherine II, wrote that ... in recent years, with Prince Potemkin upoena was the glory of their victories, it is about anything and are not thought once about the hand the scepter to his new kingdoms. The physical body of the empire is situated in the ever growing, expanding the borders of required mobilization, a simple and rapid, ideally, the military government, through the unity of the army and returns execution of orders. Catherine II believed that the State requires lengthy autocratic power in the special, which is ruled by onym.
      Such a great imperial temptation to infinite expansion of living space, which replaces the outward movement of traffic within and perezrevshie pushes overdue reform of the internal life, hindering the sustainable construction of the central provinces of Russia. This is another important fact explains much of a choice in favor of repeated stagnation and / or the imperial model of modernization, and the rejection of the liberal model.
      Extensive territorial development, the inclusion of the Russian state regions at different levels of development, relating to different civilizations, left a legacy of modern Russia exclusive inhomogeneity regions in the economy, as a society, cultural traditions. Heterogeneity of the Russian socio-cultural sphere, primarily due to a compact arrangement in the territory of civilization, ethno-cultural and religious forms. In the XIX - early XX century the Russian state has not been the slightest chance to solve the national question. It overrides all of the way the evolution of the regime, as a liberal, democratic, progressive alternative, which is a possible solution to other problems, does not address a national issue and as a result leads to the disintegration of the empire .
      This is the civilizational heterogeneity has contributed to the failure of the then socialist version of the adjustment policies pursued by the Soviet leadership, headed by MS Gorbachev, and led to a strong vnutrenneee tensions in post-Soviet Russia. This voltage can be more or less manifest in the political - legal and non-violent, and violent - neligitimnyh forms. It should be noted that over time the need to maintain the physical body empire increasingly restricted the effectiveness, depth and radical transformations in the modernization of the imperial, and the liberal model.
       Returning to our historical past, will continue to review the most significant in our discourse phases of Russian history. After a brief and controversial period of Paul I of Russia on the historical stage again appears the young monarch, to conduct a series of socio-cultural transformations in the pro, a liberal spirit. In the early reign of Alexander I is quite likely in a country of liberal reforms, drafts of which were discussed in close to the emperor circle of young intellectuals. But these reforms in the absolute majority is not obtained its practical implementation still only at the stage of discussions and projects. The views of Alexander I gradually evolved from relative liberalism to conservatism, which was accompanied by the persistence of the most important and at the same time rather archaic for the time of the Russian socio-cultural traditions.
      The war with Napoleon Bonaparte, the foreign trips of Russian army exacerbated even more liberal aspirations in society, especially among those directly involved in the events, the young and educated Guards officers: Russian officers have seen first hand the order of things in which freedom and the right to receive the fence, and with bitter sense compared with the fact that they found in their return from overseas trips. They started uncontrollable desire to settle the same start in his own country . Officers, past the Napoleonic wars, and became the most active participants Decembrist movement, heroes and victims stories: They have been the most bizarre branch of the International Left Romanticism, which has already been, and their victims (Riego), and its winners (Bolivar, Ipsilanti). Sami Decembrists were defeated but not destroyed . In December 1825 not able to start timely liberal reform, radically alter the trajectory of development of Russia. Revolution, had a chance to remain in history as the Great Russian Revolution, did not happen.
      Europe went through the bourgeois transformation, Russia preserve feudal-imperial foundations of social and cultural systems. We believe that civilizational breakdown that occurred in Russia as a result of the October Revolution of 1917, was largely paid for the policy of conservation of underdevelopment and the old order. Yes, within this vast reservation under the name of the Russian Empire was a high culture, tsveli cherry orchards, and it was so cozy cup of tea on the terraces barsky estates. But the price of this stopped wonderful moments, price brake historical and sociocultural dynamics in apocalyptic flames of civil war and decades of political repression on themselves felt not only the direct descendants of the defenders then feudal empire, but also tens of millions of Soviet people of all estates and titles.
      Thirty reign of Emperor Nicholas I came down to the preventive inspection and debugging features, the archaic machinery of empire. Nicholas I did not like and did not see the benefit, not only in respect of legal and policy borrowing from Europe, but also in respect of borrowings of technology, which belonged to a loved Peter I. Nicholas thought the release of serfs peasants, establishing a nine (!) The secret committees which were to prepare proposals on this issue. But the reluctance to offend the nobility peresililo, the emperor believed that noble land must be preserved. As a result of preferred to do nothing or almost nothing. A more reliable and complete than the Austrian, or Prussian, Russian serfdom in 1812, ensured the victory. The crisis arose from the Crimean war, and half late ... This fateful break Russia has failed to overcome .
      Despite the completeness of vital energy, and administrative activity of the emperor had no inclination to undertake any upgrading in the imperial, or even more so in liberal forms. The exception of some technical projects. Thus, the commission headed by the prominent liberal statesman of the era - M. Speransky - codified, streamlined multi-and extremely controversial collection of Russian legislation, starting with sudebnikov issued by 1830 in 45 volumes. Stagnation in various fields, ranging from social to the organization and arming the army and navy, predetermined the defeat of Russia in the Crimean War. The Emperor loved graceful sailing fleet, and belonged to the armored steam-ships as a another quick passing of European fashion, there were quite insufficient number of railways and highways. The weakness of the empire in the military field, the higher the field of human activity in the Empire, opened the road to reform.
      At that time the retention of political stability had to pay for humiliating feudal empire, the most tsenivshey military power in general, and military prowess in particular, the defeat in the Crimean War. But this defeat led to the beginning of the single throughout the period of Russian history and the success of liberal modernization. Became apparent military weakness of Russia demanded radical reform, like a half-century earlier, under Peter I, but this time they went deep into the reform, turning social order of society, opening up, albeit not as wide, the way for the capitalist stage of development.
      It should be remembered that the military weakness of the state is always only a consequence of lost time in the social, political, and economic fields. The most important archaic neustroystvami Russia at that time was the feudal organization of industry in general and serfdom of peasants in particular. Authorities understand that the old lamb humility fortress of people, sometimes reaches up to magnificent self, slabeet with each generation, despite the fact that the harshness and cruelty in his personal handling even faster mitigated. The people became the spoils, - we hear incessantly from the lips of the old landowners and counterman . The reforms of Alexander II were carried out in the public interest, not only powerful actor, while retaining the attributes of an imperial and imperial geopolitics. February 19, 1861 it was announced on the Great Reforms, abolition of serfdom: We were the last major country in Europe, which withdrew from the institution. But of feudalism, we are not abandoned. The community has been a net remnant of feudalism, and then also pochvenniki argued that this particular Russian life, Russian spirit, the national idea .
      Possible follow-up reforms of Alexander II in chronological order: 1864 - reform of public education, including the adoption of a new university statute, which made provision for university autonomy; 1864 - Zemskaya reform, promote the development of local self-government; 1864 - judicial reform, 1865 - some restrictions censorship, and reform of the press; 1870 - city reform, laying the foundation of municipal governments; 1874 - military reform, involving the introduction of universal conscription. The liberal reforms of Alexander II was the most important in our history, an attempt to modernize the liberal model, when reformed, not only technology but also social institutions.
      In the years of Alexander's reforms, the spiritual and intellectual life of Russia ever closer to Europe. These fateful for the country's reforms should be carried out much earlier, the critical delay in the middle of the XIX century was about two centuries, but with this delay of creative potential, they pledged, enough for the whole period before the October Revolution of 1917. Unfortunately, the Great Reform, as contemporaries called it, was not able to bring the country to the path of development for the European type, the use of the liberal model of modernization has come at the years of reign of Emperor Alexander II, ending with his tragic death. In Russia poreformennoy transformation processes have evolved in different directions, archaic nature of people's lives resisted modernization processes: On the one hand, there was limited capacity of culture, a moderate escalation of utilitarianism developed, was a move towards more progressive forms of labor, social life. But there was another, the opposite, ie a return to dogosudarstvennym values of the destruction of the state, the destruction of power, anything that extends beyond the emotional ties. The two processes are mutually exclusive, vzaimorazrushali each other .
      We know that the collapse of imperial gauge development at the stage of historical development has not succeeded. This is tragic for the further development of Russia was due to circumstances both objective and subjective factors. Let's start with the latter. There should be devils, arsonists and bombers, with a depth of psychological penetration depicted in Dostoevsky's novel. As a result, a number of attempts they were able to literally hunt of Alexander II, directly prior to the signing of the last bourgeois constitution: clear snow day 1 March, 1881 ... in St. Petersburg, a young white-headed woman with recalcitrant entity, is expected at the bank of the canal, accompanied by the appearance of the sled Cossack escort, quickly waved his handkerchief. Deaf reverberation explosion, sleigh overturned, and in the snow near the parapet channel was based on a man with grizzled whiskered, legs and lower part of the body which had been torn to pieces ... So the party People's Will assassinated Tsar Alexander II. Regardless of subjective intentions of the revolutionaries popular will once again was a deviation vector of development of bourgeois European way of development, has once again made the choice in favor of maintaining the feudal-imperial grounds of Russian cultural and civilizational system.
      The flow inokulturnyh innovation in origin, literally bedevil the country in years Alexandrovsky liberal modernization phase transformations, the critical stress the cultural and civilizational systems haotizatsiyu socio-cultural space, led to the beginning of the formation of an alternative liberal-bourgeois disistemy. Naturally, these processes have led to severe resistance to feudal imperial system that led to the rejection of liberal introduction of the Alexander era.
      Feudal, and many more dofeodalnaya Russia was frightened radical changes caused by the implementation of liberal modernization project the second half of XIX century. Let us remember the attitude of government to peasants timid attempts to reorganize the Government of peasant life, make it more free, when first care was reorganized their administrative system, to force them to be free. I tried to introduce agricultural improvements. Peasants remained passive, indifferent, sometimes rebel .
      Similar but even larger scale, and again during the great peasant reform in 1861, when the peasant unrest were directed not only against the lack of radical reform, but also against the release itself. Effected subsequently known as the liberal-minded Alexander Nikitenko censor in the diaries, dated December 1857, noted that: In the public afraid of the consequences of emancipation rescript - unrest among the peasants. Many are hesitant to go in summer to their village . From our point of view, the importance of people's troubles are not related logically presenting the history of Marxist People's Liberation Movement, but it is relevant features of a traditional mentality. Thus, even the Russian Empress Catherine II claimed that the revolution in Russia led to increased power, not to weaken it, and that they break out when people feared vacuum, but not when he is suffering from despotism.
      The time of Alexander III went down in history as being kontrreform; passing dominant public mood at that time, KD Cavelin in 1888 wrote: When rainbow mood light of hope and spark-plug of filling an era of reform, is complete and the years of bitter disappointment, and what were: bright hopes unfulfilled, stopped the march of reform, partly edged ago. Iridescent in the mood turned grim, sardonic, came in to despair or extreme horror . During the reign of Alexander III of the imperial power had the power to terrorist actions, bringing order and podmorazhivanie Russia, but a radical upgrade eschatological imperial ideology, which demanded tasks the next stage of modernization, it was not able to. The country once again faced with the need of radical modernization reforms, due to the increasing acceleration of the historical and socio-cultural dynamics of European civilization, modern.
      Let us remember the difficult fate of new poreformennyh institutions during the reign of Alexander III. So, constantly confined to the limits of competence and power issues addressed Zemstvo agencies in the bowels of the state apparatus with an enviable RECURRENT plans to transfer its core functions of bureaucratic management structures. The reaction of the era of Alexander III, was sluggish, poorly accented character, the Emperor, and his son and successor, Nicholas II, tried to preserve the most important elements of Russia's socio-cultural traditions, such as adapting to the many European borrowing.
      The challenge is to create an effective working, viable symbiosis between the feudal-imperial and the liberal-capitalist system was at this stage of historical development is not just difficult but impossible. M. Weber, referring to Russia beginning of the twentieth century, quite rightly pointed out that the country, even some 100 years ago, a reminder of their most rooted in national tradition institutes Diocletian monarchy, could not find a formula for reform, which would be the local historical roots and would have been without a viable.
       Potential adaptive development monarchical system is nearing its natural depletion, were years ahead of the first Russian revolution, and second, even more decisive test for the Empire - The First World War. Neither during the reign of Alexander III, Nicholas II nor the bulk of the urgent for a country of historical problems is not solved, they have frost, driven deep into that only increased the destructive potential of their future. Over time, unsolved problems worsened to the limit, which was compounded by talentless politics imperious layer is not able to give any positive response to the challenges of our time. Attempting to find answers in the near past, have not yet dopetrovskom extremely costly to both higher or lower a Russian class. B. Veydle, referring to the collapse of poreformennoy, to some extent modernized Russia, noted that during the meeting with the people of the new Russia divided on the legacy of Old Russia, is not converted by Peter and his successors on the throne or the throne, she broke on the geography of the Permanence people's lives, it won all the same spontaneous overflow of Russian lands .
      The commitment of the last Russian emperor Nicholas II's conservatism, the desire to work within the framework set by the Russian socio-cultural tradition, not only in the sphere of authority control, but also in everyday life, lack of understanding of rapidly changing world of European empire of the Romanov led to disaster, which became a prelude to the First World War. The most radical and anti-antiimperski tuned part of the society believed that autocratic empire with all its hangman, pogroms, tasteless luxury Galunov, hunger, Siberian penal, long-standing illegality has not had the chances to survive the war.
      As we know, the Romanov empire was unable to survive the war, but its collapse was not just a disaster empire, it affected all the Russian class, it was the first in the twentieth century and the terrible disruption of civilized Russia. During the first Russian revolution, the country came to yet another historic choice, assuming the adoption of a European way of development and, consequently, the use of the liberal model of modernization, or the continuation of feudal-imperial line of development, more and more difficult with a dynamic over time. Russia were inclined to the second variant, the emperor and most of the bureaucracy were willing to follow KN Leontieva proclaim: We believe we have the courage to believe that Russia could still stripped of Western European bed ... We still believe in the force of Russian health and freshness of Russian intelligence .
      At the subjective level, the situation was exacerbated by the apparent weakness of the liberal forces in the first post-revolutionary years. Rightly pointed out that Moscow and St. Petersburg especially the day before the revolution were very western city, we should not forget that except for residents of Moscow, St. Petersburg and some other large cities, in many ways comparable to the EU, Russia to the rest of the people lived in another historical era, possessing the corresponding mentality.
      Villages that have winter snow so that between them there was no communication, hardly can be called a society in the proper sense of the word, is seen quite obvious historical analogy to the rise of European feudalism. Born in the very rare weaving a society where little trade and that means the money was a rarity, European feudalism was deeply changed when the cells of the human network of tough, and circulation of commodities and the coin has become more intense, - the process seal human ties, trade Contact, consolidation of monetary relations did not manage to reach mature form in Czarist Russia, has not had a radical change in peasant environment.
      By 1917, the imperial empire has become a historical anachronism that was paid for the desire to podmorozit Russia and the rejection of liberal reforms. Modernization of transformation in a liberal spirit, resulting in a temporary (current) haotizatsii socio-cultural space, such transformations is difficult to manage, but they provide for the future, allow, over time the path of bourgeois European development. The desire for stagnation as well, and strengthening the base of the imperial grounds, through the use of the imperial model of modernization, can store the current, the current stability, but since the real problems in various fields can not be solved or dealt with ineffectively, for today's stability have to pay tomorrow's social upheaval, war lesions and in its extreme expression of this policy leads to civilizational catastrophes.
      We believe that historical accident in the past few centuries have occurred in Russia because of too long and persistent desire to preserve the historical, political, economic and cultural identity. Precipitance sociocultural dynamics within the framework of Western civilization demanded an equally rapid reaction. A very long time the Russian authorities and the company tried to find the answer in the tradition of the recipes in the past, the use of outdated tools, techniques, social institutions. As a result of the fact that in Europe vyzrevalo over the centuries, Russia had to do quickly, piffling historical period of five to fifteen years: When the government, rather than to the people by gradual improvements, stopping all movement and suppress any freedom, it inevitably leads to the need for a steep turnaround. It is time up for lost time . Success in the high jump - a phenomenon very stochasticity, much more efficiently in the modernization of an open evolutionary process, when changes occur constantly.
      When the crumbling image of the world inherent in traditional consciousness, a process familiar desakralizatsii values and hierarchies, from the public ferment, turmoil, in its extreme expression of these processes resulting in the Russian revolt. Thus, in Petrograd in 1917 began the massive waves, overgrown in the February revolution. In 1917-1921 years the Bolsheviks were able to use a wave of popular revolt, when the two eschatological doctrine found common ground by identifying and winning the Bolsheviks in the civil war, and more than a septuagenarian period of Soviet power in the USSR.
      At the next, Bolshevik phase of imperial modernization addressed the historical problem that has long been settled in Europe, this was a critical delay, predetermined, and so shockingly large number of human casualties, the first of the XX century civilizational breakdown Russia. The Bolshevik revolution was vnesistemnym addressing systemic challenges Empire, a manifestation of the desired K. Leontieva freshness, not only Russian intelligence, but intelligence and other peoples of the empire. Totally inadequate and, accordingly, is not competitive in the twentieth century ideokraticheskaya medieval Orthodox monarchy was replaced ideokratiey Marxist, able to provide other relevant time, the spirit of justification for the assertion of the implementation of the universal divine project. They backed a permanent comprehensive violence justification enough for almost the entire last century, the USSR was able to revive the empire on a new and very effective long-term ideological grounds: Of the three great multinational empires that existed in Europe during World War I - Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman and Russian - only to be the last to survive, at least until 1991 ... the first Marxist-Leninist regime was the Russian imperial regime, the heir of the tsarist empire . Place autocrat of Russia won the general secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, a place people-bogonostsa took proletariat, the new Table of Ranks-class hegemony. Ideologem Orthodoxy, autocracy, nationality in corrected form turned into the new / old triad-cutting, party came to the place of Orthodoxy, the power of the CPSU in a place of autocracy.
      Some continuity between the Russian and Soviet imperial projects there and in identifying the main source of world evil. He remains in the West, but appeared and new accents, so, the world bourgeoisie has been the role of (the world of evil) is the most authentic embodiment. Old as the Russian imperial world ideologem combining isolationism and aggression, is revived in the new Leninist-Stalinist grounds. Isolationism settle the situation besieged fortress - the Soviet Union, so, in one of the unpublished speeches MI Kalinin in November 1934, said: Here, comrades, zarubite his nose, that proletarians Soviet Union in the besieged fortress, and in accordance with this and treatment of the Soviet Union must conform to the regime fortress . A constant readiness to external expansion motivated by the need to expand to Europe and beyond all power of workers, the release of Red Army forces from the practice of exploitation of man by man, paving the way for the establishment of the Boards of the World.
      According to documents the era of direct participants and memoirs of revolutionary events of those years, we know how strong was the revolutionary enthusiasm of the most politicized part of our fellow citizens, eschatology of the final victory of world revolution is breathtaking, even from some of the educated people, at least remember the textbook example of AV Lunacharsky becoming a popular Commissioner of Education in the Soviet government. Bolshevik revolution of 1917 has allowed not only to renew and regenerate the empire, but also cause a massive surge of energy passionarnoy, clear and at the same time arhaizovavshey public consciousness.
      New ideokratiya Leninist-Stalinist period in our history has the people in a much cleaner mythological forms, the end of history, the construction of communist society, not just postponed for the future outside of human life, making it easier polemic, VI Lenin said that there is communism Soviet power plus electrification of the whole country ; and last, apparently, the communist leader of the USSR, sincerely believed in the future triumph of communism, NS Khrushchev, launched in 1962 a new program of the CPSU, declared that the current generation of Soviet people will to live under communism , literally repeating the final point of resolution XXII Congress of the CPSU. That's the end of human history, achieving the cherished dream of mankind, today the establishment of social order in which every human society gets on its abilities, giving them to his needs, eschatological version of the earthly paradise of construction, the Millennial Kingdom of God, led by the CPSU.
      Not surprisingly, that for the greater part of the Soviet period of our history we have seen outbreaks of eschatological sentiment, the last powerful burst was stimulated by the adoption of a new party program: The new program of the CPSU has promised to build communism, and this, indeed, has already been completed by the utterance of sacred words: The current generation of Soviet people will live under communism. Building utopia - and it is the embodiment of Utopia, as well as everything you need to do - the presence of purpose and faith . It should be noted that the eschatological mood, inspired by the idea of the victory of proletarian revolution on a global scale, followed by an equally world-building of communism, by its radical is not only not less, but at times surpass traditional forms of the medieval Christian eschatology.
      The victory of the Bolsheviks and the establishment of Soviet power in Russia / USSR suggested the victory of the dynamic and modern for the historic moment, the Western political and economic doctrines - Marxism. But Marxism in Russia was faced with a huge layer of archaic folk life and culture thousands of years of Russian peasantry, typical, as noted by G. von Skerst ... Russian peasant type, preserved in their customs and traditions from time immemorial something. He almost immediately faced with the traditional Russia, in its unbridled sense of freedom. Another Russian emigre historian NN Alekseev said that in October 1917 in Russia won democracy primitive, nomadic, politically amorphous, poluanarhicheskaya. Adaptation of a European Marxist to the external environment was absolutely inevitable, Marxism on Russian soil was able to retain most its external shell, losing vnutrenneee content, and in this, emasculate the form to become an ideological design of so-called real socialism. Shortly after the collapse of the revolutionary Russian empire F. Stepun wrote that Bolshevism is not only a sin in front of Russia itself, it is a sin and socialism to themselves.
      As a result of activities in a completely alien environment of a handful of conscious Marxists was very fast, by historical standards, offset, digest and absorbed a mass of undereducated peasants and Philistinism cities. RSDRP (b) has been adapted for the restoration of the empire, and the next phase of imperial modernization. That came to replace this revolutionary new kagorte Marxists dialectics were taught not to Hegel, that is not burdened control of European philosophical, economic, political traditions, and the control culture at all.
      This practical, situational build-restoration state, in practice, led to a rapid degeneration of Marxism and the restoration of the empire. The cultural and civilizational breakdown that occurred in Russia this period, brought to the surface of life from the depths of your ideas of justice, understood in the spirit of equality Archaic as equalization of material wealth, leveling everything under a certain averaged template. This is equality without classes, rejection of the damage to people, which, after the reforms of Alexander II said Slavophils when people испортили material lust, banks, concessions, shares, dividends, that is claimed bourgeois methods of management led to the division of property, threatened the collective forms of folk life.
      The Bolsheviks attempted to implement in practice their Marxist, radical zapadnicheskie ideas, so much to regenerate the process of implementation. So, unchanging set of revolutionary socialist slogans, which includes the abolition of the requirement of private property, family, state, official church after a short period of chaos and destruction is realized in a completely unrecognizable to the original plan form. The official church is entering into a persecution, churches closed, the clergy are subjected to mass repressions that led to its gradual marginalization in the private, local, in some periods of Soviet history, even something marginal, otzhivshego. But this does not mean the triumph of atheism and classical rationality, since replacing outgoing kvazireligiozny new religion is a cult, which is based was the only true doctrine - Marxism-Leninism. Marxism in its Leninist-Stalinist Soviet man replaced by the philosophy, science and religion.
      Institute of families, shattered in 1920 when the USSR was still conscious Marxists (as in this context does not remember AM Kollontai and Armand IF), and Marxism itself has not yet passed through the strip of degeneration, in the wake of Stalin's Thermidor in the 1930's not only completely restored, but even strengthened its position. In the Soviet Union not only did not show any significant trend toward dying off state, which should have happened according to Marxist theory, but demonstrated the opposite trend to strengthen it. Already 30 of the last century, the Soviet state was able to rise to foothills imperial organization and power, to those vertices after the Second World War.
      Why is making another historic choice, a country once again has chosen the path of imperial building? Indeed, at the beginning of the revolution, many Bolsheviks were, rather, for the dismantling of the empire, in the course was to determine the Tsarist empire as a prison of peoples, independence, de jure and / or de facto, were Finland, Poland, the Baltic provinces, Ukraine, Central Asia, the peoples of the Caucasus. Comparing the post-Soviet Russia and France to the time of the post-Napoleon Bonaparte, one can not help but note the following. State Kvaziimperskoe Napoleon, almost immediately replaced terrorist revolutionary regime, it was not strong enough to rotate with the key national-liberal road of European history in the appendix of imperial construction. It turns out that for such a rotation is not enough to have even the most talented leaders, it was a rather arbitrary impulse, not supported by objective historical and sociocultural conditions.
      In contrast to the French imperial postrevolyutsionnoy Bolshevik state was under a much more favorable historical and socio-cultural soil, based on the old tradition of the imperial building. During the brief period of freedom, which came into the country after the February Revolution of 1917, it was not possible either to build democracy, nor to change the trajectory of historical development of Russia, the tradition of building the empire, and play in the new phase of history has proved stronger than the Bolsheviks. These words were written about the outcome of the French Revolution, but they are quite suitable to describe the outcome of the democratic revolution in Russia: It is impossible to blur out in a few months, traces of the twentieth century, the monarchy and slavery.
      In Russia / Soviet Union, all returned to their own circles, and by mid 30-ies of XX century a new, Soviet require a great processing ... became used on the pre-revolutionary Russia the formula the least evil : the definition of Russia as a prison of peoples has been mitigated. On joining the outskirts stopped to speak about the seizure. Instead, it offered the following explanation: in Russia has been included Ukraine, because it is better than if the latter invaded Poland. Same with Georgia: it is better than slaughter. Monarchical patriotism has become in some ways to meet objectives of socialist patriotism. Pochuyavshee their strength, power, strength in the state to the 30 th year without a history of choking, but the stories docilely .
      After a relatively liberal in economic terms NEPa period, does not extend, however, these breaks in the sphere of liberal ideology, has begun the next stage of imperial modernization: At the slave labor of peasants, workers and starving townspeople so foreign loans and technical assistance - is built Pyatiletka. Stalin's modernization can be described as expressed by the imperial and because it was the aim of building a world empire, gradually aimed at world domination. In addition, the eclectic way, which was established in Russia Stalin period, has incorporated all doburzhuaznye types of society, of patriarchal, communal and slave and feudal. And such a magnitude doburzhuaznosti in industrializing economies is difficult to associate with the catching has traditionally understood the nature of modernization. The term conservative modernization here also is not appropriate, nor the Bolsheviks in general, nor the IV Stalin in particular, did not have a strong sympathy for the values of traditional Russian life.
      During the years of Soviet power had been achieved a dramatic change in the specific ratio of urban and rural population, mostly peasants from the country (more than 80% lived in the village) had become predominantly urban. By the artificial famine and forced collectivization destroyed millions of peasants in the Ukraine, Russia and Kazakhstan. The American historian Robert Conquest has estimated that Collectivization and associated famine immediately, directly, have been the cause of death of some 15 million peasants.
      Counterpoint, the key process steps raskrestyanivaniya, began during the Civil War, had been collectivized, the explosive development of heavy industry, the hunger strike beginning of the 1930's and the Great Patriotic War, nadlomivshie peasantry demographically. Concluding chords process took most of the century, was presumed to have at LI Brezhnev sselenie unpromising villages. In the socio-term, this process during the entire period raskrestyanivaniya supported the radical inequality of life chances of young generations of townspeople and villagers, in the economic, the nonequivalence of the exchange between urban and rural areas, the existing gap in the prices of industrial and agricultural products.
      Attempt recovery of agriculture in Russia nechernozemnoy zone, saving the village, made in 70 of the last century largely due to rural origin of the first people the Soviet state, has proved ineffective. By that time the peasant way of life had been irrevocably destroyed, the picture of rural life is the final stage of a long historical catastrophe, zakolochennyh crosswise izb, desolation, dozhivaniya in their field elderly farmers. Collapsed peasant world, ascending to the genealogical archaic, prehistoric period of human development. At the end of XX century, has a displacement of the adaptation of social, economic technology, peasants produced for many millennia, to the local, poor, marginal realm, is not guaranteeing anything but a minimum level of physical survival. The tragedy, неизбывная pain of the process, Korçe bezyazykoy Russia is well described in the literature, ranging from the horrors of the Civil War pictures, famine A. Veselov, A. Platonov, V. Ivanov and writers-derevenschikov V. Rasputin, V. Belova , B. Mozhaeva etc.
      At the industrial stage of development of modern society to achieve a certain level of punctuality, of assembly, technological complementarities, coherence and identity of the industrial economy. Features of imperial modernization Leninist-Stalinist phase in our history was the use of feudal practices. For example, referring to the October Revolution of 1917, a famous Russian economist EG Yasin rightly noted that it is us in new forms, new words plunged into even greater feudalism, which has made a mission to lift Russia out of underdevelopment, and build industry best ... feudal methods .
      This largely stems Bolshevik terror and the 1917 - 1953 years, which was not only an ideological justification, but also represented an attempt, using extreme violence to instil winning the context of orthodox values-regulatory system of Soviet man a moral imperative, even in its simplest , utilitarian forms. Historically, in the Russian socio-cultural system dominated by the external form of control over the individual, personal self does not become dominant in society or in the Tsarist Russia, nor in the post-period, it did not contribute to the formation of the revolutionary years of chaos and civil turmoil.
      From memoirs A. Izgoeva relating to the period of the Civil War: Russian people ... Only such a government and should be. Others do not cope with it. Do you think the people you (or cadets) respects. No, he laughs over you, and respects the bolshevik. Bolshevik him every minute shoot can . It is figuratively describes the state of the masses of post-revolutionary Russia S. Portugeys in Five years of Bolshevism: ... In loose, unstable environment burst mad industrial fever, with its military-terrorist grip ... and most importantly with the involvement in the industrial hell huge mob Philistinism, yokel, pushed ruin and raising fears of fall in the right industrial Moloch, who shocked them to the foundations of their spiritual and mental damage ... Vzbalamuchennoe sea of social waste, class Okroshka and mash, the sick, in fact, the generation of suffering fits of mental epidemics ... This has affected the genius of Bolshevism, which he has managed to subjugate this military-social medley, making him sick, the louse life, his rapacious greed, poverty and the poverty the starting point for socialist revolution .
      In 30 - 40-ies of XX century, at noon, the Stalinist era, in the public consciousness peg simple truths: do not be late for work, take off (the law of Koloskov), almost literally peg nails, as well as during the Civil War, when representatives of the same people are not in an allegorical, but in the literal sense of nail in the officer's head and shoulders: People bogonosets swindled. People bogonosets either servility or sedition, or kaetsya or hleschet a pregnant woman in the stomach, or solve world issues, or raising chickens in stolen piano.
      Barbaric methods solve the problem of mass changes precapitalist Russia's rights, adapting it to the needs of the Soviet industrial model of modern society. Draconian measures taken in the Stalin era, is largely due not only ideologically, but utilitarian, severe repressive measures have tried to construct a new man era modernize, to adapt it to the needs of industry. In Nazi Germany in the same historical period were the cases of the shooting for ticketless travel on public transport, shooting attack plane for the unwashed windows of apartments. This policy of radical forms of continued policy of sanctions, substantial fines imposed by medieval city offices for the dirt and debris in front of private house, for the same unwashed glass. As a grass lawn becomes a complete, planned form of a few hundred years, the correct care, and rational, civilized, median human behavior is achieved in no less prolonged.
      Stalin imperial modernization is largely conducted on the model of Peter, we see the same very high level of absolutism, where each direct reference or poluskrytoe wish the leader and the standard is non-negotiable, but only the implementation. The new phase of historical development is reproduced powerlessness subjects, the principle of centralized mobilization of resources on selected areas, borrowing Western technology, when hundreds of factories were bought in the complete and more equipment purchased separately machines and mechanisms. Thus, all the great pre-war five-year construction work on foreign equipment, but the importation of advanced western technology was accompanied by severe concomitant filtration technologies inokulturnyh elements.
      Stalin and the post cultural inquisition cruellest way sift alien information, special restrictions are placed on the information coming from abroad socialist state, which is limited to information relating to scientific and technical sphere, which is antagonistic to the imperial phase of modernization. Revenues and until very very curious case because, one of the areas of censorship Voroshilovskiy (now Alchevsk) offered to withdraw from the local museum bust of Aristotle, and in the Moscow region was a ban on the transfer of works of Schubert on the radio, on the grounds that the author raylitu unknown, but it can be Trotskyites .
      Stalin imperial modernization remarkable by the fact that this was the last relatively successful modernization in the imperial system. Successful is not a final decision in the sense of the strategic objectives of the empire - they are unrealizable in principle - but in terms of solutions of the tactical goals of historic moment. These tasks were to successfully confront the West in the military-political rivalry, acquired after the Second World War, the world geopolitical scale.
      In the second half of last century, the situation changed radically. The next level of technological development is not due simply borrowing and deferred to Russian soil, without fundamental changes in the entire social system. But the imperial system can vary up to a certain limit beyond which there is a threat to the preservation of its quality system. Where to run the boundary of internal transformations, the system has determined a posteriori, when trying natykayas itself in a relatively liberal spirit is to enhance the civil, labor activity in Novocherkassk in 1962, the fermentation and the Fronde on the part of intellectuals, the external constraints posed by the countries of the socialist bloc : Hungary in 1956 and Czechoslovakia in 1968.
      Even relatively liberal modernization transformations were incompatible with the feudal imperial system properties. In fact, all the Soviet leadership after the death of J. Stalin stood before perceived or unconscious choice between conversion to a liberal model of modernization with the subsequent integration into the modernization and extension of civilization uporstvovaniya ideokraticheskogo in the implementation of the project, a continuation uporstvovaniya in the preservation of eschatological ideas and other important elements of feudalism and the imperial building. The period of NS Khrushchev in the same two-faced and contradictory as his tombstone work È Neizvestny. On the one hand, exposing the crimes of J. Stalin, on the other - shamefaced marking them as the cult of personality, the release of millions of political prisoners and suppression of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, the chaotic, largely improvised solutions in various areas of life, especially in the economy . Nevertheless, during the rule of NS Khrushchev in the country used some of the elements belonging to the liberal model of modernization, although heterogeneous, raznovektornye processes are intertwined, stratify on each other in many ways creating a chaotic picture.
      In general it may be noted that neither with NS Khrushchev, much less with LI Brezhnev, and K. U. Chernenko liberal modernization model used was not, indeed, and the model of imperialism, dominant speaker of Russian modernization. Yes, have some innovation, attempts to improve what already exists, for example, the structure of ministries and departments. But in general, more likely, unconsciously, was chosen as a policy one hundred years old, then frost Tsarist Russia, and now the Soviet Union. This policy is shown to be ineffective even in the nineteenth century, especially since she could not even be any good in the second half of HX century. Nevertheless, during the years of Soviet power had been solved some important problems facing Russia / Soviet Union, held industrialization, urbanization, demographic transition place, there has been tremendous progress in achieving universal literacy in medicine, the social sector in general. But the price of success has been incredibly high, the achievement is based on an ambivalent and therefore fragile, achieved through the mobilization, overvoltage all the vital forces of society that is largely predetermined civilizational scrapping the post-Soviet era.
      Every company is located in one of three states: the development, stagnation, degradation. Stagnation in the Soviet Union began about the turn of 1960 - 1970 HX century. Mastering Samotlorskih oil fields has allowed some to compensate for the inefficiency of the Soviet system, even over two decades. In addition to policy podmorazhivaniya cosmetic improvements and low-selected parts of the system was shown and the potential tendency for the resumption of imperial modernization, with the stagnation of the Soviet Union behind the most developed Western countries was growing stronger. And here in the galaxy of party and government officials USSR, several distinguished figure stands Yu.V. Andropov, who in all likelihood, was inclined to undertake the next stage of imperial modernization, but it has not been for this time, the Secretary-General of the Central Committee CPSU, he stayed for about a year.
      Note that in the period of stagnation (stagnation), the Soviet Union kept to the inertia of lost content, but retaining the form of tribute. Thus, infirm old Konstantin Chernenko, who was elected to the magic of the death of Andropov, holds supreme power in their hands, because a well-mantle credibility (we would say for granted. - SG). In general, it can describe the policies of the leadership of the USSR in the last decades of its existence, with the exception of the years of MS Gorbachev, as a conservative, aimed at preserving the status quo. Radically different from the period, untimely period of MS Gorbachev, after the latest attempt to revive the system, give it some flexibility and competitiveness of our then-historic enemy - the western civilization modern.
      It was a belated and largely improvised attempt to use a liberal model of modernization and thus to extend the historical existence of the Soviet system. However, when the elements brought into the sphere of social and cultural life of the country, the liberal model of modernization began to emerge in the alternative system, the situation is spiraling out of control of the initiators of perestroika. Because of both objective and subjective reasons rotten Soviet regime spill, along with his reformers, radical changes were inevitable. Let us remember the prophetic words of NA Berdyaev: kill the Russian empire. And so perish all the same empire, to be established . The collapse of the Soviet Union was caused by the more objective factors, subjective reasons rather play a supporting role. Empires do not last forever, the collapse of the Soviet Union was largely predetermined, long before the events of August-December 1991, when there was all the more radical devaluation of cementing the state of communist ideology.
      To analyze the current situation is extremely important, at least two circumstances. The liberal and imperial models of modernization, the idea began to appear which, binding and related phenomena, even in disputes Westerners and slavophiles in 30 - 40-ies of XIX century, now almost completely deprived of any ideological oposredovany that does more than articulate a choice of various options strategic development of Russia.
      In the historical process of social and cultural development of the system depends not only on its intrinsic properties, because the historical context is in the process of constant renewal, presenting the system to new conditions. The defeat of the Soviet Union in the Cold War marked the end of global confrontation of different social systems that scale obscheistoricheskom meant an end to global competition and the liberal imperial civilization models. Radically accelerating historical and socio-cultural dynamics in the modern world is the increasing uncertainty increases the possibility of variation in the development of the world as a whole and its individual cultural and civilizational areas. But today the power of socio-cultural and historical transformation is not sufficient to finally dislodge Russia from traditional imperial gauge, pre- restructuring have proved reversible just because they are the reconstructions aziatchiny rather than scrapping it.
      Once the Russian geneticist Nikolai Timofeev-Ressovsky argued that if the serfdom in Russia would have lasted about twenty years, it could have been talking about a new type of people. This selection with much greater intensity and better outcomes and the government continued during the Soviet period of our history: In 1861, our country had abolished serfdom. A few decades trying to build a civilized society ... In 1917, again returned to serfdom. And it explains much of what is happening now . All this does not help the formation of internally-free, active personality, able to make informed decisions and assume full responsibility for them. The society maintains dominant position of the traditional (passive nedeyatelny) type of personality, behavior and decision making which is largely determined by a system of external control by the authorities.
      In a long historical time in the country, there was a kind of negative selection, isolation, all that could not bend, together with the general line of the era. As an illustration of this thesis is to remember the massive surgical amputation of Leninist-Stalinist period, which led to the disappearance of entire estates, including the foundations of empire and the Archaic in all its manifestations - the Russian peasantry. The Soviet period - during the fight with the prophets, men of iron and steel ( b nails done from these people is stronger than it was a nail in the world), a phased withdrawal from a life of moral rigoristov of the nobility, clergy, officers, and other estates. At a later stage, the removal took place in the life of communist idealists, Burnt by the Sun Romantic revolution. In the past, yellow period of its existence, the system will not withdraw from life, but isolated, converted into glass and capitalist camps abroad to new applicants for the role of prophets.
      One result was the dominance of seventy transformation in the society of the era cynic, social type, without an established faith, without king (think it is skepticism to the latest secretary general), a man capable of not only the spirit of the time, but almost anticipate the coming of another new / the old ideology. In the sociocultural sphere of late Soviet society triumphed cynicism and unbelief, tired grin and tolerance to a different, a departure from Messianism, sacrifice, from attempts to re-establish righteousness on earth should life outside of history. The spirit of the late Soviet era succinctly and at the same time is expressed in the poem, Brodsky I. 1972: If you fell in the Empire born, / is better to live in a godforsaken province, near the sea. / And far from Caesar, and the blizzard. / Fawn does not need a coward, hurry. / To say that all governors - voryugi? / But I voryuga miles than vampire . In the relatively liberal Gorbachev and Yeltsin years has not managed to form a critical mass of free people.
      Socialization and inkulturatsiya majority of Russians now living took place during the Soviet period, which caused serious difficulties in adapting to accelerate the post-Soviet historical and sociocultural dynamics. Recall the comment of French sociologist P. Bourdieu that people often attach disproportionate importance of early experience. There is an inertia effect, which is characterized by prolongation of stereotyped behavior of people trying to use the adaptive behaviors that have been effective in the past, but lost their effectiveness in terms of new development in society.
      At the same time, during the years of market reforms formed the first generation of Russians, the primary socialization that took place in relative freedom. This is a generation of mostly focused on the inclusion of Russia in the emerging global community, the institutional environment and to a lesser extent, value-regulatory system which dates back to the genealogy of western modern civilization. According to VTsIOM, generation of 18 - 23 year olds focused on individualistic life project - a society of success (64%), in contrast to the traditional orientation to the society of social justice and equity (36%).
      According to R. Ingleharta involved in research of value structures that are in the XX century, violent modernization processes, our system of values 18 - 24-year-old became dominant in the society after 15 - 18. R. Inglehart analyzed the changes in value systems in postwar Germany, Spain, South Korea and Japan. How this experience can be attached to the Russian socio-cultural transformations - an open question. The project of liberal modernization does not have a strong cultural, civilizational, and some researchers believe that the climatic and soil, but also the modernization of post-imperial era has no meaningful historical perspective.
      In modern Russia the proposed power ideologem society relate to the glorious past, based on nostalgia for the time when we had a great epoch. This vision is radically different from civilization rooted in the modernist style. For example, Henry Ford said that we want to live in the present, and the only story that something is - is one that we are doing at the moment. The feeling that all great in the past suggests the exhaustion of traditional eschatology, which inspires us with some, albeit very moderate optimism about the possible scenarios for Russia's historical and sociocultural dynamics.
      Chapter 2. The Anatomy of Russian traditionalism
      I. The traditional mind: the mental and cultural syncretism
      Since the second half of XX century the concept of syncretism is becoming more popular in the study of historical forms of mentality and culture of the states. However, with this concept is hampered by specific features of scientific rationalization discourse, especially analitizmom, ie desire for a differentiated and a clear distinction of phenomena with a more precise definition of the borders between them. There is a mismatch of method and object of cognition, resulting from a volatile, uncertain and undifferentiated nature syncretic objects.
      Rationalize consciousness have to deal with objects, the nature of which is preceded by so genetically mental forms, on the basis of which formed the European scientific rationalization consciousness. At the same time, we do not share the positivist view of the possibility of using the logical device rationalistic science as a universal tool that can properly be applied to phenomena of different order. The problem is that the analytical apparatus in the study of syncretic objects in their organic integrity at least ineffective. We can consistently describe the various features of traditional consciousness, but not in the analytical procedures to reproduce it as a living and organic whole, which is likely to face rationalization, but try to give the most extensive picture of the phenomenon.
      Let's begin. Russia - heavy country: neither revolution nor reaction, it did not pass. Russian life - a unity of reaction and revolution. And it defines the system-an element of unity, the core of the system - Russian power, whether it is called communism and autocracy . Let us try to ascertain the reasons for determining the cash situation.
      Russian sociocultural system is in the vicinity of the critical zone of bifurcation, or its own, resisting any certainty, and certainty in particular historical choice: symbolic embodiment of a permanent fragility , semantic ambiguity is a famous Russian random, meaning the eventual hope to a natural set of circumstances in which all the problems be allowed to like themselves, without any subjective effort Rights . What does a permanent thirst for physical nedelaniya, in the form of landmark events in images Emeli, Ivanushki-idiots in the Russian folk tale, bylinas about Ilya Muromtsev lying on the oven thirty and three years, if not a desperate attempt to avoid a conscious personal choice. Ultimately, this attempt of emancipation from the personal and public lives. Preservation of the opportunity to live in the zone of bifurcation, and in close proximity to it, moreover, the persistence of belief in miracle, in the necessarily uneven cause-effect relationship is still important elements in many pagan mass consciousness.
      This inherent desire to avoid uncertainty, even in respect of finality destiny I. Goethe was a well-Ortega and Gasset: Life - this is an inevitable need to decide to write himself entirely to the exceptional destiny, accept it, in other words, be solved by . Regardless of our desires, we are obliged to exercise our character, our vocation, our life program, our entelehiyu ... (Goethe - SG) wishes to retain the right to dispose of. Always . In the historical fate of Russia is also present, eksplitsiruyas in large numbers in the external manifestations of this ambivalent beginning, the desire to retain the right nedelaniya, to avoid the certainty of choice. Raznovektornost, the contradictions of Russian socio-cultural system is reflected in all spheres of social and intellectual life. Hence, the output in the practical results obtained either se, but hell knows what, ie what so emko VS Chernomyrdin said: We want it better, but it turned out as usual.
      Russian philosopher FA Stepun draws a parallel between the way of economic thinking and the form, noting the syncretic beginning of Russian life, as manifested in the lives of ordinary people and intellectuals negative attitudes towards top form and differentiation. In a specific Russian religious philosophy is the same negligence, as in the Russian land management. The lack of agricultural machinery in line with the denial of usovershenstvuemyh skills and continuity of thought .
      The forms of social relations and lifestyles stratify, mix and sprout through one another, forming a bizarre and contradictory symbiosis. The main function of consciousness is the traditional human adaptation to living in the contradictory situation of the mixing of social relations and lifestyles. Adaptation is performed by minimizing the number of contradictions, is achieved through their division into osoznovaemye to be any way to respond, and neosoznovaemye and therefore as a non-existent.
      Note that the reality is controversial in nature, but different types of cultural consciousness perceive, interpret, and experiencing controversies in his own way. We recall that the Levi Брюль gave characteristic thought of primitive man as a thinking prelogicheskogo, which, inter alia, the laws do not apply formal logic, and almost no record of controversy. So, for regulatory archaic experience of the individual consciousness of contradictions is possible only in a minimal extent, people live their behavior in accordance with custom, involving a set of normative behavior. That is, they regulate the spontaneously emerging controversies, build them to a certain precedent, subsequently receiving the sacral status: Ancient people lived in a world of absolute truths, he was precise and definitive answers to all fundamental questions: What was the universe, his country, the people, what will happen with him after death, etc. ... .
      Consciousness archaic spared from having to find an independent settlement of disputes and, therefore, his relations with the world the most harmonious: As long as man has been an integral part of the world, has not yet been realized nor the capacity nor the consequences of individual actions, and he did not have to be afraid of him. But turning to the individual, it remains a one-on-one with the world, stunning and formidable .
      In the era of the Middle Ages, mental filter, the function of which is the segregation (division) controversy misses (allows you to understand) have a greater number of them. The very people the Middle Ages which still askriptivny type of consciousness, so much of the controversy they are simply not understood. But some controversy, mostly related to religious matters, people are already aware of the Middle Ages quite distinctly. It not only exposes them to more or less conscious reflection, but also changes in accordance with the results of its practical behavior. Let us recall in this context, the breadth and diversity of heretical religious movements, and by processes of Reformation Catholic Church.
      For a medieval-type entity picture of the world based on the metaphysical opposition between cosmological categories of good and evil: Everywhere, as we have seen, supports the doctrine of two principles: good Christ resists evil Satan, the representative of the spiritual world is Christ; matter represents Satan, one belongs to my soul, another - our body. And in harmony with the entire world of phenomena, the nature, the world is inherently evil, and Satan, the king of darkness, seeks through its temptations to destroy us . This confrontation, a battle of light and darkness can grow in their minds to the extent of the world are reproduced in time almost from its creation to the Last and prodozhayas Court. The contradictions that do not fall within the boundary of the dual opposition, or are perceived as not worthy of attention or just do not notice, are not fixed in the consciousness of the subject: Black and white, without the middle - that was the reality for medieval people.
      Medieval type of consciousness is peculiar contradiction seen as something external to the person, respectively, the outside is a way to resolve these contradictions. Thus, a way of resolving them can be a violent transformation of social / religious context. As an example, recall the numerous peasant revolts and religious war period of the Reformation. But unlike the archaic medieval type of consciousness to a greater extent individualizovan and adapted to the psychological treatment of personal choice and the conscious use of behavioral strategies.
      Radical changes in a model of resolving conflicts are occurring already in the framework of a liberal civilization modern. The subject perceives the contradictions of liberal culture as an attribute of being irremovable, allowing them to mainly internal, ie by carrying individual productive creative activity, he is experiencing his personality and provides a highly individual response because, in point W. Beck, most of us are forced to seek 'biographical solutions of systemic contradictions .
      The subject of the liberal culture has a responsibility to themselves, as the person to be de jure means that can not be blamed for their own pity the fate of anyone except himself, that the causes of their injuries should be sought only in their own idleness and laziness, that getting rid of all problems calls for more serious (their) efforts .
      Towards the formation of this kind of cultural consciousness and was sent to the vector of historical evolution, and this type of consciousness was significant in the spread of liberal Euro-Atlantic civilization modern. Throughout history man has evolved from the ideology of collectivism and individualism to a greater autonomization consciousness, moving in the end to this state of affairs in which the Our freedom must consist of the quiet joys of private independence.
      Note that in the traditionalist mentality happening mixing it archaic and medieval types, which explains its inherent sinkretichnost. In general, traditionalism is a kind of antithesis of extended time in the New Europe and a dynamic personality-oriented liberalism: As the basic value of modern societies, individualism in the economic and political plans to take the form of liberalism . And survivability tratsionalistskoy mentality is largely due to its ability to liberate people from the necessity of personal choice, the tendency to delegate to his team, the charismatic leader, a religious authority. As a textbook example to remember Legend of the Grand Inquisitor from Dostoevsky's novel The Brothers Karamazov.
      But despite all the well-known in the history of both private and collective attempts to finally get rid of the need for choice - get rid of it is not possible, but as a palliative solution, you can shift it to another person, the circumstances, the external environment as a whole. In an effort to get rid of the need to make a permanent choice, people subconsciously nostalgiruet to the Archaic era, when the mythological stage of evolution of consciousness begins with the (state - SG), which is wholly owned by the Ego unconscious.
      Famous Russian culturologist AA Pelipenko believes that there is accompanying the person throughout his life on the genetic memory of a harmonious, consistent states. It creates the illusion that people can not just run out of space dualizovannogo culture, but also get rid of itself with the need of individual choice.
      Culture, in which the traditionalist orientation, including Russia, order, albeit in varying degrees, social fatalism and patience, as the cash situation is sanctioned by the social and cultural tradition. The emerging set of fault genealogy goes back to the primary Christian faith, especially in its relation to evil and sin ... Christians taught what they are sinners and that sin, original and personal, is present in a person's life, along with a good beginning, but today - more than ever no, that Christianity itself began with the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ ... . This defined set of fault is inherent not only traditional consciousness. Thus, DS Merezhkovsky said that I know where I go, you can not get one ... Out of the underground, to overcome loneliness - that is the problem ... , ie it comes to bridging the insulation from the society of individualism, is the need to form a collective movement to Christianity.
      Complemented by original sin and personal sins such as the deviation from the conventional human behavioral standards set by Properly: Who is God is not sinful, the king is not to blame?. This state of affairs in no small measure contributed to the contradictory nature of the legislation, as it adopted the practice of its mass and the daily violations for the time being, then Power, consistent with the interests of another current, may ask to everyone throughout the extent of the law.
      Note that especially the social psychology of the subject of traditional societies are in a fundamentally different system of priorities than the subject of modernization of society. Thus, bringing the picture of the world is carried out by regulating the delegation of functions and initiatives at the level of higher social levels. This is such a high level of priority, thereby reducing the negative effects of the accompanying its decision arbitrary authority and deprivation. The traditionalists, feels his stable belonging to the socio space where all are reproduced in accordance with tradition, and because conventional able to make the horrendous acts of arbitrary authority. Thus, H. M. Karamzin an example from the reign of Ivan IV, when John shortly before he commanded a view of a small fault of one of the noble people to put on the count, that this miserable living whole day, in terrible pain spoke to his wife, children, and incessantly solid: God ! Mercy on the king! That is, the Russians were famous for what иноземцы upbraid them: blind, unlimited devotion to monarshey will in most of its reckless evasion of state laws and human.
      But when the situation of uncertainty, and this picture of the world rush disistemnye beyond the power elements, a process it desakralizatsii. Loss of power sacral status inevitably leads to social turmoil of varying degrees of radical, in the form of civil turmoil, rebellion, revolution, riots foreigners, intelligentskoy Fronde, circulation in the nation. Only in a breach of the social and cultural continuity of a person begins to respond, at least in the form of reflection on the harsh conditions of material life, the lack of meaningful financial compensation, the transfer of its vital energy from everyday life with its joys and concerns within the scope of various superhuman, eschatological projects serving idea of, empire. Similar bursts of reflection, passing time in the field of radical action, we can indirectly observe the Russian and world history. For example, A. de Tocqueville pointed out that feudalism in its heyday never inspired Frenchmen such hatred, as the day before his disappearance. The most minor of the arbitrariness of Louis XVI gave rise to more frustration than an absolute despotism of Louis XIV. Short-term imprisonment, which was subjected to Beaumarchais, caused riots in Paris more than dragonnady 1685 . However, while painting the world in line with expectations of rights due course of things, he is more able to make him fall in the proportion of oppression, arbitrariness, and deprivation.
      As a traditionalist society cultural patterns are more localized and culturally specific than in modernizing society, while the latter is often taken to consider the general principles of traditional values and as a purely unique phenomena of their culture. In the vast space of the Earth, from India to Chile, and from Russia to Iran extended a similar socio-historical mifologemy the special messianic role, the spiritual elevation of each preserving traditional foundations of the life of the people on the West thanks to the commitment of mercantile true spiritual values. Examples in support of our argument are numerous. Initially, there are almost a classic definition of NA Berdyaev, describing the communist leaders of revolution, in its continued Russian messianic project: And the conscience of those who carried out the Third International, also turned in his own messianic consciousness. They were conscious of themselves carrying the light from the East, which is to educate residents in the bourgeois Western nations darkness. This is the fate of Russian messianic consciousness .
      It is equally prevalent and such a position outside Russia, this kind of definition is sufficiently common in various Third World countries. Descending the many radical statements, give only enough osovremenennuyu the position of Professor of Political Z. Sardar. In his article Outside Development: Islamic Perspective, he noted that the idea of development in the Western sense is absolutely unacceptable to non-European cultures, and the future is not the result of the dominance of Western civilization, with its understanding of freedom, civilization ... Among non-European civilizations (India, China etc.) the role of Islam is that Muslim civilization has shown the benefits of our values ... .
      When we are aside from the national characteristics in the search for what unites the various options traditionalist mentality on a deep level, we see that the traditional society unites particular, irrational-mystical attitude to a range of submissions relating to the concepts of unity, slitnosti, universality, indivisibility and inner dissolution private to general. In other words, a special attitude to everything that goes back to the archaic period of the life of humanity: Primeval look at life sintetichen rather than analytical. Life is not divided into classes and subclasses. She felt as firm a continuous whole, does not allow for any sharp and clear distinction. The boundaries between different areas - are not insurmountable barriers: they are vague and unstable .
      Put in different given the historical and political environment, ideological forms, mythological formula syncretic unity haotizirovannoe organizes socio-cultural space, sets the sustainable value. That it largely blocks the allocation of a separate and autonomous social self-identity. Mifologema syncretic unity is odoy of the root, the most archaic of traditional foundations of consciousness: The more people as unascertained, the stronger the I is projected on the group, and the stronger the interaction between the members of the group.
      This mifologema goes back to the prehistoric stage of human existence, which was characterized by a commonality of human full interchangeable and social roles, and minor internal differentiated: Member of the primitive kind could express their sense of identity with the words I - we have , he had not yet felt the individual which is separate from your group. Nevertheless, memories of the prehistoric unity for a long time remained in the Muslim and Orthodox worlds: Sonsensus bezlichen righteous and condemns the I as a sin, but equally, and is - a truly Russian - the notion of truth as agreement to an unnamed .
      Considering the historical and socio-cultural processes in Western Europe and Russia, AI Gertsen noted that the Western world has lost its community-based device; hlebopashtsy and nesobstvenniki were brought to the sacrifice of the development of minority culture but the development of the nobility and the townspeople were large and rich ... The people of Russian just was not able to develop the western ceremonial last three centuries, as the crusades, as scholasticism and theological disputes, as the Roman law and German feudalism . As history has shown the last century, not only in Russia but also in the framework of a liberal civilization of the archaic layer of memory unity may be updated, creating a program of action.
      A classic example of self-actualization is the history of the Archaic Third Reich. Let us recall the very etymology of the word fascism in the treatment of B. Mussolini: It (fascism) is not seeking to convert the form of human life, and its contents, the man, his character, faith. And to that end, it requires discipline and authority, which could penetrate the souls of people and edit it freely. That is why his symbol is liktorov rods - a sign of unity, strength and justice . Anxiety CG Jung, perceived by the external civility, middle and tranquility of western minds boiling magma unconscious displaced archaic scripts, remains valid today. As part of the modernization of civilization humanistic personality, with good behavior, is in the minority: We were unable to overcome the divide between the minority who have reached these goals, and attempting to live according to them, and the majority, the mentality which is far in the Stone Age, in totemizme, worship idols feudality .
      In the syncretic principle of the unity of consciousness, and in the Russian version of the principle соборности or vseedinstva, it is compatible with the principle of hierarchy, which is the second cornerstone of traditionalism. It should be noted here that the inherent hierarchy of the culture, because the Culture is activity of the differences: the classification, segregation of the boundaries and thus the division of people into categories, the combined internal similarity and divided by external differences. But in traditional societies, the principle of hierarchy of power not just high, but the sacred status, and only in a liberal society sacred rationale of hierarchical status is lost. Note that the construction of hierarchies is a major tool of mediation obschekulturnoy linking poles broken world: the top and bottom, the Creator and creation, mining and submultiple, etc. Hierarchical relations are not only fixed in the traditions and values are based on these traditions.
      In the Orthodox-Byzantine cultural area man is attracted both to the earth, and the heavenly peace, preserving in this sense, a certain continuity in relation to the Middle Ages. Cosmological poles continue to gather around him semantic fields of culture, making it difficult and limiting their penetration in the middle zone. In the coordinates of the cultural and civilization of all that is in the middle of the area of culture - precarious, unstable, neoformleno: As in the soul of Russian landscape painting, and landscape in the Russian soul theme squalid forms closely related to the non-divine temoyu. It is this informal, neontologichnost median zone is a feature of the Russian cultural-civilizational system.
      For example, the Observer A. Akhiezer, in Russian history is constantly fighting a local rural worlds, and the centralized state. It unfolding conflict between the government, big society and traditional world. On the one hand, the peasant world could not live outside the state. On the other - a state historically consequential phenomenon is opposite to the traditional space, transforms and decomposes it .
      This confrontation is one of the characteristics of private acts of the Russian cultural-civilizational system. Turning to the analysis of these features, we denote our attitude toward so frequently affected by Russian historians, philosophers, literary theme of the impact on the formation of Russia's cultural and civilizational of the Tatar-Mongol invasion and the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium).
      Yes, Moskoviya over at the Mongol-Tatar harsh management practices and attitudes citizenship, when even senior government dignitaries began to call himself the last king Kholopov Moscow. And in the first half of XIX-XX century, not only Russian but also European intellectuals believed that the backwardness and aziatchina observed in Russia, were the exclusive result of the Tatar-Mongol yoke. Judgments of this kind available today: For several centuries the main content of the country's development was a process of Europeanization, overcoming the effects of the great historic disaster, which has been in Eastern Europe, the Tatar-Mongol invasion. In istoriosofskom sense, it was difficult approval of Russia as an integral part of a unified Christian civilization .
      These assertions are true in many ways, but not exhaustively. This position has been and remains a convenient and psychologically comfortable for Russian historians, and for intellectuals in general, because it allows the company to withdraw from a historic responsibility to make it outside. But despotic tendencies began even before the Tartars, which, incidentally, was typical then for the whole of Europe, not just to the north-west Russia, and after the end of the yoke of these trends are not only not disappeared, but also strengthened. Today most contemporary historians tend to believe that the Mongol invasion, with all its profound impact on Russian history, is unlikely to significantly affect the character of Russian people and their traditions.
      In addition to bringing into our lives through the visible components of the Asian-old Mongol-Tatar domination was no less serious and the influence of the Roman Empire. The most famous Byzantine experience regarded by Russia in the field of Christian faith, accompanied by church canons, architecture (the building of cathedrals), technological methods of Byzantine masters. In addition, there has been a geopolitical and continuity between the Second and the Third Rome.
      In this continuity, we would like to dwell in more detail. After falling under the blows of the Turks of Constantinople in the Moscow kingdom, and then in the Russian Empire, took an important idea rebuilding, restoring the Byzantine Empire, centered in the capital of the Russian state - Moscow. Already Alexei Mikhailovich seeks in principle to revive the Byzantine Empire with its center in Moscow as a universal monarchy, uniting in a common Power to all Orthodox. Russian king should not only take place Byzantine emperor, but to become them ... .
      This tradition has not been interrupted and later recall a disappointment prevailed in the Russian society, where in the Eastern war with the Ottoman empire in 1877 - 1878 of the Army has not received an order for the assault of Constantinople: Then the Russian company could not simply to Alexander II-mu, why He heeded the threats (of England and Austria - SG). He was accused of cowardice and spineless. Condemn and Grand Duke chief, who, in the opinion of many, was derznut disobedient order and at your own risk enter into Constantinople . The theme of Constantinople, the Straits, vodruzheniya cross over the St. Sophia, and sounded in the First World War, it became a kind of ideological justification.
      When we talk about the actual parts of the Byzantine heritage, it is necessary above all to the perception of Byzantine Orthodoxy, along with the most imperial-ideokraticheskoy model, which is a historic development in the different ethno-cultural soil of North-East of Russia, later the kingdom of Moscow, the Russian empire and USSR. In the system of values Byzantines Empire above all. Thus, Odon Deylsky, French hronist II crusade, wrote, describing the Byzantine political tradition that they generally believed that no one should be accused of perjury if he had allowed himself to the interests of the holy empire. As part of the priority interests of the empire above any other interests Byzantine influence was seen with the most complete and authentic.
      Again, remember Leontieva K.: Vizantizm in the state is autocracy ... in the moral world, we know ... that vizantizm, like Christianity in general, rejects any hope for the welfare of peoples, that it is the strongest antithesis vsechelovechestva ideas in the sense of earthly vseravenstva , vsesvobody earthly, earthly vsesovershenstva and vsedovolstva . We believe that as a result of the evolution of Christianity in the eastern area, especially in the Byzantine period in its history, imperial, theocratic doctrine became internally close to Orthodoxy. Let us recall the claims of Serbia and Bulgaria's own imperial status, a number of historical reasons and the remaining unfulfilled: the historical and religious tradition has been on the side of Constantinople, and after his fall, and followed a long period of Turkish domination of imperial acquisition of lost all relevance.
      Note some features of the Byzantine State, had a subsequent impact on Russia's statehood. Thus, the Byzantine patriarch Nicholas mystic, in a letter to the Bulgarian king Simeon called him a tyrant and the rebels, has pointed out that the desire for independence of Bulgaria, violates the principle of a united Orthodox empire as an icon of God's Kingdom. Bulgarians, as long as they are making a split empire, worthy of punishment. Here, clearly felt a priori consideration of the State as the sole and self-sustaining source of world harmony, continuing the tradition in this sense, the Roman Empire. Originally the Roman Empire, and later the empire in general and there is / has become the supreme and eternal value, so the now, a full-fledged state should be organized on its basis.
      The Bulgarian and Serbian kings, to engage in open battle with the New Rome, this is not done in the name of much later ideas of self-determination, but prityazaya again to re-establish under its own power all the same one and only Orthodox power, next to which there can be no other . (Hardly not, therefore, the war against them, fought with great bitterness - they were for the Byzantines is not belligerent, and self, kramolnikami.) It should be noted that a set of representations associated with the state, is a key to popular mythological consciousness. Sinkretichny by its nature, it retains the notion of state, society, country, power, even today, in post-Soviet Russia, for a part of our countrymen is something malodifferentsirovannoe.
      Moscow realm at a certain stage of development require a new ideology, and it was entirely appropriate idea of the direct historical inheritance, vospriemstve state (empire) of the First and Second Rome (Byzantium). The implementation of the Russian ideokraticheskogo project, anchored in the process of its formation and development of the presentation, linking the empire with the major characteristics of the Russian people. Since then, imperial ideology and the idea of sverhtsennosti Empire have become part of our everyday perceptions and practices of public life for centuries. According to the power of the modern historical thought in the United States approach empire - as the idea and the reality - was, apparently, one of the defining characteristics of russkosti .
       We believe that the Russian ideokratichesky project started as a project utilitarian, imperial ideology required when the empire began to emerge geographically, spreading to other alien to the cultural and civilizational areas, including in the composition of the Muslim regions of the Volga region (Kazan, Astrakhan) and Pagan Space Siberia. Some researchers, in particular Boris Kagarlitsky, believe that the idea that Moscow - the Third Rome, and the fourth is not, carried out the role of ideological compensation. The more Russia becomes the periphery of the world (according to the theory of world E. Wallerstein - SG), in reality, the more she tried to assert themselves as the center of the world at the level of culture and ideology . This position is largely due to global economic processes, the division of labor and the nature of trade processes. We believe in this context that the processes occurring in the economic sphere of life of the Moscow kingdom, an important but not decisive in shaping the ideology of imperial significance. Again, that the imperial ideology was, first of all, there is a need for care and maintenance of a physically evolving empire.
      In its most diverse manifestations of the empire as an idea and as reality has been important in our daily lives and in the sphere of ideology in a long historical period, including a decades of Soviet rule. At the same time, cultural and civilizational system can not be constantly the same as itself, it changes, the most radical in the post-Soviet period. We believe that there is now the intensity of the historical and socio-cultural dynamics can not talk about the possibilities for a complete and authentic reproduction of the tradition, when the all circles back to his own, and all that was, it probably will. But unless the idea of empire and imperial ideology, how can she be, in his physical body and the geographic incarnation? The issue we will return in our final chapter, considering the post-Soviet processes of modernization.
      In order to better understand the context in which the modernization of transformation, we would like to refer to the specifics of Russian traditionalism, to the characteristics of syncretic Russian cultural consciousness.
      An important aspect of this issue is the prevailing theme in various European regions and in different historical periods of the relationship between Christianity and Paganism. In the geographical and socio-cultural limits that took Antiquity, The Great Pan is dead, a belief in the old pagan gods weakened, the process of Christianization was predominantly natural character. Prophets and подвижники carried the word of God is undergoing persecution and flour, with a pagan not with sword and violence, but the word. So one of the Christian martyrs, A. Kaprus, burned alive in the days of Marcus Aurelius, smiled, and answered the questions: I have seen the glory of the LORD, and my joy .
      Outside the limits that had previously occupied the Roman Empire, Christianity spread predominantly not from below, through the preaching of the prophets and personal asceticism and neophytes, but from above, when treated barbaric princes and their approximation, and this treatment is often done through military force. Nrodnaya life for centuries remained predominantly pagan, despite the fact that the old idols brought from rural temples, replacing them in the Christian symbols of faith, a great Christian feasts prescribed in the days of pagan celebrations. As a result, people's minds had a sort of mixing of Christian and pagan notions. Although controversial Christian pagan representations quite revealing from the standpoint of formal logic, the logic of syncretic thinking they are not understood.
      European Christianity arose in the soil leaving the antique culture. By maintaining communication with the legacy of antiquity, originally Christianity in its geographical spread of almost fully extended within the boundaries of the Western Roman Empire, ie, boundaries of the Christian world is almost coincided with the boundary of Romanization. A little later they were expanded by the European barbarians, when the young people, the Germans and the emerging Roman people, were recorded in the area of the old, working beyond their means, intellectual and - if properly understood - in an incredible degree of explosive faith ... They retsipirovali that infinitely exceeded their level of content. And as these people are internally alive, so drink, filled with new juices, and rejuvenate all the same old left .
      As for the Slavic paganism, it has been shown, in particular, E. Ivahnenko not passed by the time of Christianization of its intrinsic historical cycle. Incomplete pagan cycle in Eastern Europe led to the spread of Christianity in the space of an active and vibrant pagan world: In Eastern Europe, the forced Christianization of the top place, but the folk religion of Christianity had become centuries later, when the monasteries came out of the city walls, from under the direct tutelage and patronage power and went to the people. Christianity in Russia had to have a long fight against Paganism for the souls of people, the people's massive monastic orders, directed at solving practical problems, in Russia and not having .
      Paganism eastern Slavs at the time of mass Christianization has not yet entered into a decline and decay, the energy of the pagan attitude continued to serve as a source of civilization. But paganism - it is, among other things, the energy component of the life of the people ... to destroy, suppress paganism in the active phase of his spiritual life can only happen if it is destroyed or assimilated by the people. On the non-exhaustion of domestic capacity indicates an ancient paganism, in particular, the significant level of popular resistance to the forced Christianization. Thus, Czeslaw Milosz in the book West-East area, referring to the spread of Christianity in Lithuania, said that epic spread of Christianity to a large extent has been epic of murder, violence and banditry, black cross of a long time remained a symbol of misfortune, worse than the disease .
       As a result, formed the Christian pagan component in the traditional folk consciousness is expressed unbalanced, as the pagan elements greatly outweigh the elements introduced by Christianity. Different characteristics of the religious consciousness of ambivalence expressed deep internal fault cultural consciousness at all. In the type of Russian people have always faced two elements - primitive, natural paganism, spontaneity and endless land of Russian Orthodox, from Byzantium received, asceticism, otherworldly aspirations for peace. For the Russian people are equally typical and natural dionisizm and Christian asceticism .
      For the eastern Slavs transition from paganism to Christianity was at the same time, the transition from tribal societies and the earliest forms of nationhood to a more developed state. In this regard, it should be remembered that this process is not absolute, substantially enclosing only change proportions, change in dominance between the past and present forms: The formation of civilization is not through a historic shift earlier forms of arranging, and through nadstraivanie new spiritual and social structures and the subordination of previous options. Tribal structures and their cultural norms and representations continue to varying degrees, there remain constantly playing remnants, vstraivayas in a new relationship, covering a significant body of culture in society, especially in the outback and on the periphery . In eastern Europe, has interlocking innovative at the time of feudal institutions, and relations with elements of pagan ways, and the nature of the binding and, subsequently, interaction and so different to each other elements and institutions in many ways defined the features of later development of Russia's cultural and civilizational system.
      Internally persistent paganism for centuries has continued to grow in the shadow of the cultural norms and traditions of Christianity. This process is not interrupted in Russia until the XX century. For example, in 1926 under the direction of Academician of Russian Academy of Sciences of EF Kara study traditional pagan beliefs and magical practices in some rural areas of the Nizhny Novgorod region. The outcome of this field expedition EF Kara was made at a meeting of the Division of Human Sciences Academy, the deliverables under the title On the Russian sorcerer published in the Museum of Ethnography and Anthropology in 1928.
      Quote recording one of the participants of this field study NA Nikitina: In summer 1926, I studied the life Novoslobodskaya volost Lukoyanovskogo county of Nizhny Novgorod province, and I was surprised how big a power sorcerer. The memory of the powerful sorcerer, a view which killed a crow in flight, and the sorcerer turns into a wolf wedding train, nasylavshih sea beast, still lives in stories, not only elderly, but sometimes young people. They say that it is now less powerful witch, but in 90 of the last century was the sorcerer, the glory that thundered on the entire okolotok . It should be emphasized that such evidence is not isolated, is not unique in the sense geographically or chronologically, on the subject, there are a number of publications. On the preservation of its ancient genealogy of the evidence, and J. Fraser: In some areas of Southern and Western Russia as a means of causing rain, applies swimming. Sometimes after church service valili parish priest in ryase right to the land and irrigate it with water ... When there was need for rain in the Kursk region, the Other woman grabbed a passerby and threw him into the river or okatyvali from head to feet of water .
      Surviving in the depths of people's consciousness pagan values are reflected not only in rituals and magical practices, even more significantly, they affect everyday life and at the level of mentality. It is for them to dogosudarstvennomu of the society, as a memory of his ideal state, its origins and myth of the boundless, bezgosudarstvennoy peasant Will, understood not how to regulate their rights and assert themselves, but as the right to withdraw, claiming nothing, and nothing has failed . Note that this is a mass exodus from the authorities to become more remote from the margin of the state has a lot of territorial expansion of the Russian Empire.
      Pagan on the basis of its genealogy folk mentality left their mark, and the nature of the Russian state. As part of the Russian cultural and civilization of the State acquires traits expressed ambivalence, being both as a source of cosmic order, and the world of evil. What could be higher and mightier than that of someone assumed there evil? The state is the embodiment of social Absolute, which not only eliminates the entire cultural contradictions, but also dwells on them. In addition, because of people's mentality vysheoboznachennyh features, including its natural non-defined state relations and the establishment, it is itself throughout Russian history is, in some sense, forever nedoosuschestvlennym project tvorimoy but nesotvorimoy social structure.
      So, despite the modernization transformation of the last three centuries, the Russian society at large continues to be traditional. Traditionalism is updated in moments of dramatic acceleration of the socio-cultural dynamics, Civilizational scrapped, apparent in an effort to restore and strengthen the regulatory, spontaneously occurring in the traditional technology of survival of individuals.
      According to philosophical views of M. Shelera, the area values of society, has a rank order, there is a hierarchy of values, the values are divided into high and low, values interact and do not exist by themselves, outside of rank order: ... rank order of values is constant, while the rule of preference in the history of a variable . Value system of the Russian society ranked different types of human activity correlated with higher and lower values, ranked by degree of legitimacy. More significant is recognized intellectual, spiritual activity, a long time should be expressed in religious forms. In the transition to a predominantly secular culture, the significance is transferred to secular forms of intellectual activity, especially in literature, which has continued to reproduce this evaluation ranked the stereotype. Economic activity in the capitalist forms remained at low levels of this ladder of legitimacy.
      In the popular consciousness, and now doubts persist about the correct the individual salvation, individual dostizhitelnost not yet fully conventional, are not authorized within the socio-cultural traditions. Mistrust in a large, legal, cold, depersonifitsirovannomu modern world is reflected in nelyubvi to trial, even to the formal (legal) ways of solving problems.
      For a large part of Russian society continues to be the traditional perception of the necessary and unnecessary actions of labor and consumption, of the extent of natural human needs. So it was in the second half of XIX century, when not receiving a meaningful reward for their labor farmer went to the belief that the material and spiritual needs should be minimal: Bread of life, money nuzhu, dresses snoshu ; Who is happy with the small, the God is not forgotten . These representations, and everyday practice is reproduced en masse today.
       In traditional society, people worked to meet the primary needs of limited, not exercising, as a rule, the propensity to produce and consume in excess of the minimum standards; permanent expansion of the needs of daily life in various, including technological innovation, could be perceived as a pathology typical of only a narrow circle of the aristocracy. Characteristic view peasants to work as only a fair source of property rights, the recognition of ownership rights to the land of the peasant community, the priority of the community and the recognition of the common good of the family property. Extension of these traditional beliefs preclude the capitalist reforms of the post-Soviet period, at the same time the preservation of ecological balance.
      Defined above problem to a certain degree of inherent and Western European nations. Western European nations at that time shared the similar notion that found its expression, in particular the doctrine of the Catholic Church in the later Middle Ages. Wealth rights as God's gift that must be used for the benefit of an increasing number of people, relatives, employees, just the poor. The wealth is not condemned, but did not support the quest for its enhancement: Economic ideal set forth in the Caroline era Teodulfom remained significant for the entire Middle Ages. In his view, ought to remind those who negotsiyami trade and that they should not wish for earthly benefits more than eternal life ....
      European medieval society disciplined approach to abstract, depersonifitsirovannym, capitalist modes of economic activity, particularly in the areas of finance: schoolman borrowed from Aristotle's assertion that money does not give rise to money, and for a long time, any credit transaction, bearing face this dogma . The Catholic Church in order to maintain a subordinate significance of economic activity, keeping it in the local context, the higher values of salvation, harshly condemned usury as a manifestation of non-productive, parasitic economy. Lay people, who give money at interest, subject to the condemnation of church, the priests found to have similar actions unchurch: In the church sculptures appear to disgust and horror of the faithful, usurer, burdened purse, which leads him to hell. With the Catholic Church sanctions contributed to the spirit of Christian values-regulatory system of medieval, precapitalist society.
      The peoples of European countries have since come a long historical and cultural path, instead of the Reformation, religious wars, bourgeois revolution, the establishment of capitalist relations in the economy, the establishment of political democracy, secularization of culture and society. The European people has become more tolerate manifestations of social, economic inequalities, especially in the second half of last century it has lost its blatant severity, show off, went to second place sign of inequality, the bread and circuses began, albeit in somewhat different forms, are available rich and poor. This is the result of a radical growth of scientific knowledge and technology, a miracle of production, two-trehsotkratnogo productivity growth over the past century. Miracle of Engineering led to wonder ... All Equipment is available, all you can buy all you can consume. Were there ever been a society which would have happened is a miracle ?
      We know that in the history of European nations played an important role-old Romanization, directly or indirectly change their pagan mentality. As a result of the violent and non-violent forms in Europe was the establishment of Christian paradigm, accompanied by the gradual replacement of paganism. This process has been formalized as a result of the Reformation, although it is consolidating rather conditionally. For example, G. Heine wrote in 1835 that ... in Westphalia still has the old, knowing where the hidden ancient idols; on deathbed, they reported that the youngest of the grandchildren, who is this precious secrets hidden in his Saxon heart. In Westphalia, Saxony, the former is not all that buried really is dead .
      It should be noted that the victims of religious wars that accompanied the process of reformation had been very great, and undermined by these processes is not only infidelity but, to some extent, and western Christianity. The Reformation was the unvalued in this sense, contemporary prologue secularization of social and cultural sphere in Europe: ... he (Luther - SG) wishes to save the religion, and initiated its degradation. He contemplate reform of the Church and received her secularization. From Luther religion retreated into private life. Perhaps he is still conscious. But the fact that this retreat was the beginning of the outcome of the religion of human nature, it is not anticipated and did not want .
      Russian Church has always, and after the conclusion of the Greek (Byzantine) Orthodox Church in the Florence Cathedral in the 1439 union with the Roman Catholic Church and the fall of Constantinople in 1453 in particular, felt itself as the guardian of the true faith. This belief has been designed to achieve salvation and the kingdom of God in the world hereafter, orthodox theology has little in secular improvement, not legitimiziruya the very idea of progress in the world that exists relating to the early development of the spiritual, theological. And the reformation of the Orthodox world, despite the existence of certain tendencies, was unlikely. Ivan Solonevich, considering the constant reproduction of tradition and rejection of innovations in the Moscow kingdom as a natural and positive phenomenon, noted that the king saw himself as a nation and the Church, the church considered itself a nation and state, a nation believed church and state. Similarly, the King could not - and do not mind - change orthodoxy, as could not and did not think to change, for example, language. People did not think to change to something else neither autocracy nor orthodoxy - both of which comprised an integral part of the identity of the nation. The king had been subordinated to religious dogma, but to subdue the ministers of her .
      At the same time, the trend towards religious reformation emerged mainly in the form of religious heresy, who found a greater force as the removal of the central districts of the Moscow State: For the masses, only that the transition at this time of the whole pagan ritual to godliness, then advanced exercises were completely invisible. Affected were only coming to the west margin (Novgorod and Pskov regions) .
      As a result of the desire to minimize both the content as well as changes in ritual orthodoxy proved the most consistent and authentic, as far as at all possible, play the original (apostolic) Christianity: Saving the Church of truth, it was predominantly Orthodox challenge East ....
      Syncretism of traditional Russian consciousness is maintained not only by mechanical inclusion of cultural and civilizational elements of Christian society in the pagan world. This syncretism was characterized Moscow's cultural and civilizational model of Russian world, which constitutes a local socio-cultural system. And the system can not be reduced merely to the sum of external influences and borrowings, whether in Byzantium, Europe or the Tatars and Mongols. It is capable of absorbing the most diverse external influence and innovation, and to reproduce, from century to century while preserving its basic characteristics. Over time, changing only the outside of its surroundings, mediating the semantics of values, images of characters from the proper and at the other extreme, embodied antigeroev of the world's evil, but the basic disposition that has been recreated again.
      In this system, each of the poles need another hero anti-hero is needed, raznozaryazhennye Pole perform a vital function, as its internal energy source. Thus, for example, and Hitler and Stalin depended on to demonize an object of hatred, which gave them power and justify their actions. As a consequence of attraction to the opposite poles of the current socio-cultural system is a significant internal stress, preserving, nevertheless, the stability and reproducibility. Syncretism of traditional Russian consciousness is projected in the scope of the institutional organization of society, thereby affecting the processes of modernization.
       For example, a well-known Russian sociologist Yuri Levada noted that one of the characteristics of delay and controversial modernization of Russia - a weak differentiation of social structures, the continuing dependence of the economy from politics, the identity of the State, private life from public, etc.. This description applies to the present, modern phase of modernization, indicating preservation of syncretic manifestation of inertia in the minds of the Russians, and the institutional organization of society. The situation began to change in the past, pozdnesovetskie and post-Soviet years.
      Expressed ambivalence of Russian culture makes it difficult to fulfill one of its key functions, which is to ensure the legitimacy of political and economic systems of society. Negative attitudes formed at the highest levels of culture in relation to private property and a desire to sverhmernomu enrichment, the legal right, his opposition People's righteousness, concepts, customary law, diminish the significance of the individual, the community priority and the state, where the fate of an individual is perceived as part of the total ( that the whole world, then babemu son). Is it possible, with respect to the above, allow the realization of the opposite, rejected parts of dual oppositions?
      How effective are the following subsystem (subordinate) levels when the values of higher-level implicit blocking efficiency and functionality of subsystems? The answer to these questions is a very great importance to determine the prospects of modernization processes in the Russian socio-cultural sphere. Until these questions are rather pronounced rhetoric, in other words, as rightly observed character dog hearts MA Bulgakova Professor FF Preobrazhensky, ruin sits not klozetah, and in their heads!.
      Russian sociocultural environment, and now opposes the formation of well-functioning subsystems in the areas of law, economics, human rights. Soviet journalists, responding to accusations that the Soviet Union in the absence of basic civil rights, said that there is no freedom of speech, assembly, political life in the Western sense, but we are provided with basic, physiological human rights. The right to reproduce the life of their own with minimal effort the person: work for all, albeit with low pay, relevant, however, reached the level of labor productivity (the right to the minimum necessary to sustain life soldering), public concern about child-rearing, which includes benefits , benefits, orphanages (to raise the present Soviet Man). Russian syncretism, with its uncertainty, vagueness of meanings protects society from disintegration, but at the same time hinders its development, ottorgaya systemic changes brought by the liberal modernization.
      In our conditions is quite difficult to introduce an advanced system of procedural law and justice, this process has largely replaced the agreements at the level of mezhsubektnyh relationships, where and are transformed, eliminated and discarded divided into necessary and unnecessary, working and non-laws and the establishment of authorities: Act that the Web: bumblebee slip and fly uvyaznet . Hence, in many ways, and the preservation of a sufficiently high status of customary law not only in people's everyday lives, but also in the proceedings: Customary law, adopted as the legal basis of activity parish court, distrust of large, legal, cold, depersonifitsirovannomu world modern dislike formal (legal) ways of solving problems.
      Well all this, among many, said NG Chernyshevskiy: The basic concept of our continuously our tradition - that we all make the idea of arbitrariness. Legal forms, and personal effort for us seem to be powerless, and even funny, we look forward to all, we want to do the power of the whims, uncontrolled conscious decision to promote, on spontaneous willingness and ability of others, we do not expect, we do not want to do business this way . This is one example of the type of socio-cultural relations, which, being articulate, with varying degrees of clarity, are traditional Russian life. And while the system remains at the level of mental attitudes, any liberal innovation or simply rejected, either as, for example, the institution of democratic elections, retaining only the external form, is transformed to a state of the relevance of the system. This can not be said of the innovations brought by the imperial modernization, which has always been inherently relevant system.
      II. Proper and exists in the minds of the traditional Russian
      Antinomy exists proper and is a base for the traditional Russian consciousness, in which antinomichnaya organization of peace and of being perceived as a contradiction between material and ideal, Mother and Spirit, and to Suschim.
      This contrast is not always clearly articulate, but it is structured around the traditional cultural space. Analysis of this antinomy, revealing it to the conscious level, allows to comprehend the deep layers of the traditional consciousness to understand the organic nature of his dislike for liberal values. Reflection on this antinomy also helps to understand the reasons for the continued exclusion of liberal forms of modernization. Pattern Due / exists there for the traditional consciousness of peremptory and natural form, traditionalist thinking mifologichno rather than concepts, operating unit-specific semantics, rather than the conceptual categories of universal, ie experiencing a phenomenon, not the meanings of its essence.
      For traditionalists, including Russia, have peculiar specifics of individual and collective thinking, limited or even impossible to operate abstractions, including money as a means of investment, different kinds of securities, stock exchange transaction, ie operations, isolated, apart from specific, individual and unique expressions of the material world. This greatly hinders the liberal forms of modernization, and not only in the sphere of economic life.
      Typical for the Russian mentality organic abstractions rejection is not unique. In traditional European societies and the man resisted shematizatsii things, the use of mathematical abstractions in relation to the economy and society. In the transcendental sphere of the ideal idea of things is perfectly complemented by the divine-human prototype. These prefigurations were fairly abstract, but by definition, isolated, unique. In culture and society modernize numbers, and symbols, mathematical multiplicity corporeality are replacing the traditional world, where the thing and its production have been well understood, tangible, concrete.
      A man in his hypostasis, as some parish parishioner, member of the craft shop, consumer goods and services was also a more individual, but not as easily as the next era, fell under the law of large numbers, getting features formalized, an abstract value. New time change lives, meanings, values, destroying the integrity of the traditional livelihood, the warmth of human relationships, differentiation is increasingly coming to replace sinkretichnosti: Everything that used to be tangible eye and hand, she turned to abstractiveness. Bazaar has become the stock exchange, the club, newspaper, restaurant, beer hall rallies. That was before color, shape, face, voice, - a figure, mark, letter, symbol . This process has not bypassed Russia party, but in the minds of the traditional still addicted to the specific semantics of the unit.
      Among the Russian culture special contribution to the development problems of the study values due antinomy / exists for the traditional Russian Space introduced and made IG Yakovenko. In general, recognizing the concept, we will focus on certain aspects of the problem, seeing them in the context of our discourse.
      What is proper? Ideal (to) is understood as the realm of the absolute initial sinkrezisa, which is the highest perfection. At the level of mass consciousness of this idealized image of tribal life - Belovode or communism. At the level of theological research - Cathedral of All Saints and the unity of the righteous is in eternity, that is, essentially, is nothing more than a theological reflection on the image of the eternal, transcendent nesotvorimogo and neunichtozhimogo Roda lies from the past to the future and effuse to the size of the universe. Hence the stress, and denial of history, as the objective content of stories - the constant fragmentation of the social and cultural sinkrezisa. History is defined as a persistent movement away, farther from the ideal. In this respect, it pogibelna, and only an eschatological perspective carries with it the hope of deliverance .
      This definition is given IG Yakovenko, needs comments. First, we note that in our view, should not the same as the ideal, although a relative concept. The ideal, regardless of the degree abstractiveness and pipe, carries with it some element of rationality, the same can be said of the norm. Ideally, one can argue about it, you can nominate an alternative, ie ideal to a greater extent includes some elements that can comprehend and be evaluated as more or less independent, ie ideal may be subjected to analytical procedures. This is not the case on due to a more monolithic and indivisible moving closer in this sense to the ancient smysloobrazam, which are inseparable functions semanteme, sign and magemy. Due contribute to easing the inherent non-state model of the social life of people with archaize and postarhaicheskim consciousness that did not save the kingdom of Moscow, and subsequently the Russian Empire from the repeated expressions of natural antigosudarstvennichestva.
      Let us recall in this connection, many peasant uprisings, which reflected the prevailing mood in the nation a model of social exclusion gosudarstvennicheskoy way: The farmers wanted to not only get rid of serfdom, but getting rid of the state, whether it's landowner, ispravnikom or military commanders, if they could find suitable words, they would say that they do not need history, but rather the peasant and his household and that they are asked to save their life forever . Speaking as a key mediator for the traditional consciousness, due to perform a kind of psychological function, contributing to a perception of intra-sparing contradictions.
      Note that the dyed in the eschatological tone of the elements of the perception of the world are not only a religious or kvazireligioznom, but also in the Russian consciousness altogether. In the process of historical development, there is a sufficient number of logical sense, which includes peasant utopia Belovode, Holy Russia, communism, and other images of the Golden Age. Sam the golden age was a key subdiskursov granted. Described a utopia is not limited to the context of the entire series of eschatology, we are just some sign of a number of Russian utopia eschatological fantasies. The historian of Russian churches AV Kartashov, a former Minister of the Interim Government of exercise, noted that the bright branch of the net at Old поганого has precedent only in ancient Israel. Russian people saw in Christianity - the revelation of the coming of the Savior on the earth and the establishment of the power of ecclesiastical piety, instead of the sinful, impure world, another, entirely holy .
      And today, in the post-Soviet period, in the public consciousness remain important antinomy, reproducing at a new stage of development of stereotypes Manichean mind, a clear separation of light and darkness, good and evil, making a person outside the answer to the question Who is to blame?. Find the answer to the question of why the person I became worse as a result of the reforms imposed from outside, there are theories of international conspiracies. In any case, do not blame me, not us, we are good in that things go wrong, to blame other, strangers, gives mystical force capabilities, terrible in his villainy, and power. The role of these forces in the historical and sociocultural dynamics could serve the enemies of the people, the CPSU, zhidomasony, aliens, Americans, and later AB Chubais, and the oligarchs, members of various ethnic minorities, economically, socially successful people do that, however, except for negative emotions cause rejection and envy, the desire to be the case with the same rich and powerful as they are.
      Extremely simplified recipe solutions to real social and cultural issues are the need to destroy another, or extraordinary, interior or exterior enemy. Down supostata and sign in the kingdom of God, where there are no problems and contradictions, but the integrity of the state of peace and harmonious personality.
      The ideal for the mass unconscious is to achieve a static, sterile state of the world outside of historical time, the world where this is the end of history, development as such. Shows. John Meyendorf: One of the characteristics of Russian culture ... this ability, a tendency to live as if in two worlds, a kind of dualism in relation to history, Manichean view of the fact that in this world is perfect, but it caches the soul, whence comes the light, where is the truth: they are free, regardless of historical process ... Maniheystvo, dualism in relation to the history of Orthodoxy in nasloilsya ... . Replacement eshatologizmom Historicism is a feature of the cultural consciousness, immersed in the paradigm for granted.
      Not FM Dostoevsky, through the hero of his novel Teenager Versilova enthusiastically expressed this desire for apocalyptic last days, the completion of stories: The Golden Age - a dream most fishy of all, what was but for which people gave their life and all its forces, which died and killed the prophets, without which the people do not want to live and can not even die! .
      As part of the mythical world the image of the golden age has undergone substantial changes. If the archaic, it refers to the mythical past, with time pervopredkov, the era of modern consciousness forbids any thoughts on the regression of the return to a mythical neoposredovannom pervoistokam. Horizon awakening to a mythical past forms only the future ... . The Golden Age began to think about not only how to overcome falling away from nature, but as the withdrawal of social history, with all its conflicts, conflicts and contradictions. Niveliruya distinction between past and future, due obemlet paradise lost and paradise found: the golden age of Archaic meets the golden age of the final story-time, end meets the beginning: is messianic times: World in the visions of the prophets - this is one aspect of messianic time when the person overcome the schism that separates it from the kind of human and nature, it really will be at peace with those who had been separated ... Look at the prophets, messianic time - it is his understanding of harmony between people, between man and woman, between man and nature .
      The dream of the implementation of the kingdom of God on earth, achieving a complete and definitive happiness is not only superior, but also antagonistic to the liberal modernization, with its rationality, secular, democratic procedures, is opposed to the very paradigm of gradual improvement in the world, the processes of modernization are deployed in the horizontal dimension of the world, in existence . The famous Russian religious philosopher SN Bulgakov, describing members of the State Duma of the second convocation, said very important in the context of our discourse circumstance: I have clearly seen, in fact, far from the policy-making, ie everyday prosaic work of repairing and greases state mechanism, these people away. That psychology is not the politicians, not prudent realists and postepenovtsev, no, it ekzaltirovannost impatient people waiting for the implementation of the Kingdom of God on earth, New Jerusalem, while almost no tomorrow. Involuntarily mind Anabaptists, and many other communist sectarians Middle apokaliptiki and hiliasty, zhdavshie early onset of the Millennial Kingdom of Christ, and to clear the way for him with the sword, the popular uprising, communist experiments, peasant wars, remember John Leyden with his retinue of prophets in Munster .
      Modernization is precisely characterized by gradual and steady improvement, and pragmatic utility. These features have socio-cultural environment of modern, it is innovative, which in no small measure contributed to the dynamism of economic life. Success in business requires not just the creation of new goods and services but also new markets, which allows economic operators to obtain the greatest profit, there is a regular restructuring management, is seeking capital to where it is possible to achieve the greatest possible efficiency. Generation and use of innovation has become a vital part of society. The familiar chain of innovation-stereotype is undergoing the greatest change in the area of stereotyping, which loses its thoroughness and certainty as the norm. Rather, the society later modernization refers to heterogeneity of stereotypes that are relatively small time of existence. Heterogeneity is manifested in the lack of a unified style, ie in polistilistichnosti, locality stereotype.
      Expanding the borders of stereotypical behavior facilitates the dissemination of innovations. These new capabilities of information systems innovation becomes available (known) set of people not only in this country, but also in different regions of the world, where for this set up the necessary technical capabilities. The observed accelerating fragmentation of our culture and the explosive spread of innovation leads to the coexistence of things and simulyakrov, risking their own problems, of which, however, is beyond the scope of our discourse.
      Modernization processes give rise to a number of innovations that not only contribute to transformation of the world exists, but also serve another important function: innovative artifacts, meanings and effects via attitudes to the world, filling the space of alienation between them in a substantive manner. Thus, the fact that the position must be submitted to the manifestation of spiritual, Philistinism, bourgeois, in terms of self-liberal culture is part of the process of harmonization of peace and integration of human cultural space.
      Characteristically, the massive Soviet people, even in the most repressive, ideologically aware during our recent history has sought to create around itself a barrier property against pervasive emanation due. As an illustration of what the topic Concerning the export of cultural property from Germany to the territory of the USSR at the end of the Second World War. For the peoples of the USSR, it became a spontaneous form of acquaintance with European culture, break the iron curtain, estetizatsii everyday life. Left picture, dining sets, furniture, utensils, books filled the void (simplicity) of proletarian life, at least in part sufficient to satisfy cravings for burger well-being, filled the vacuum of property, a meaningful world, making it more solid, substantial, bourgeois.
      The desire of Soviet citizens nekotromu to perpetuate the world's existence allowed, albeit at a minimum, maintain and reproduce life in biological and socio-cultural forms. In pure form due emanation can live only a limited time, you can remember the years of military communism, the Civil and the Great Patriotic War, to some extent, Leninist-Stalinist period in our history at all, but without concessions to the world that exists can not be any long-term existence and peace granted. Summing up, it could be argued that peace should parasite in the world that exists, capturing energy that is required for biological and sociocultural reproduction of human life at all.
      Construct Due / exists manifests itself through their private subdiskursy, key among which are the Power of God, order, truth, the non-translatable word truth , which means at the same time, and truth and moral and natural right . These subdiskursy in turn split up in even more private, pronizyvaya neontologichnuyu, but necessary due to the existence of matter that exists.
      IG Yakovenko noted that consciousness, in which the idea is alive should be separated from chleneniya world at two levels. Sacral level of normativity, or should the only true, the reality of the mountain and lowland existence, understood as a false, inadequate, in a sense, empyrean . Within this picture of the world must be understood as predvechnaya, divine nature of life, which was present in the sacred past, and will prevail in the eschatological future. It must be sacred and ontologichnoy nature, but rather refers to a real degradation, reduction and imperfect version must. In the topography of the laity and the world that exists no ontology, it does not have its own nature, and therefore, its own laws, which sets it should, seeking to maximize potential in these historical circumstances samovoploscheniyu.
      Let us turn to an illustration of what the phenomenon of riots, to which their actions were guided by a desire for purification and restoration of existing terms. Since the late 50 - early 60-ies of XX century by the Soviet Union rolled a wave of unrest, massive fights, bullying group, indicating a growing trend away from the tribute. Actually, a similar situation was observed in Russia and after the abolition of serfdom, caused by decay, the transformation of the usual socio-cultural forms, the overall reduction of the repressive culture and society. The article of 1905, sensing the growing chaos in the social and cultural life, a presentiment, followed by DS Merezhkovsky, parish come Hama, A. White wrote: A new type, embodied the chaos that has risen from the depths - the type of hooligan. Grozny grew ghost Mongol invasions .
      After half a century of mass bullying did not cause such a terrible presentiment, they were in themselves as the natural elements, there is little conscious protest against the external, material life, and were a reaction to the process of differentiation of the estate, income inequality, the ability to compare his and someone else's financial situation. Participants of the mass power actions justified his actions as a form of protection of the communist ideals, as an attempt to return the Party and Soviet power to the primeval form of the Soviet utopizma. It is impossible not to recognize that reducing the riots were in a sense, the defeat of the Bolshevik ideology, a symptom of loss of influence in society its original utopian ideal: it became less people able to go out of their protection .
      By the early 1970's, the intensity of riots significantly decreased, indicating that the indirect loss of peasants and workers, yesterday came from the peasants, the belief that equalization understood the ideals of social justice are separated by the supreme state power, realization of the fact that the government departed from the ministry granted. Queer pravdolyubtsy, recent persistent jealous should the images are described with such love VM Shukshina, gradually attached to the city (mass) culture, all the better sharing of public, social and private, local. Life in the first field of a part in the party, Komsomol, trade union meetings, subbotnik, other forms of public works, the execution of a certain social role, the maintenance of conventional rules of the game.
      In the field of private space to relax, drink vodka and philosophize in the kitchen, to denounce officials, disbosom. Mutiny has been eliminated from the public in the private sphere of life, while maintaining its illogicality, clear (binary) division into friends and foes, black and white, good and evil. By the light pole and a good, unifying their are co-workers, convive, ie, as a rule, people who know each other personally. To the contrary, the dark pole of the universe are the world zakulisa (remember the numerous conspiracy theories and secret machinations against Russia / USSR in general and the Russian people in particular), the imperialists, ochkasty private owner, regional or later the Moscow authorities, ie other strange, incomprehensible, and therefore likely to represent the forces of evil. In the private sphere of the collective unconscious expressing the same set of important phrases: We stick here, but they are there with Giroux besyatsya, I fought, with regard to actual participation in any military action. These mizanstseny include the elements of nonverbal communication: a torn shirt on his chest, knocking a fist on the table, link dishes, a man asked from the world of another person: I am quite significant for the environment, to peace, I am quivering creature, or have the right, voproshanie expressed sacramental phrase: Do you respect me?.
      Returning to the consideration of so important in the context of our discourse antinomy due / exists. It defines a coordinate system of values and concepts that help in the ideology of traditionalism comes around the world. The structures of reality are expressed in concepts and models should / exists. Items that do not fit into such a model, not perceived, not recorded traditional consciousness, entered into the category of accidents. So it was in our still not-too-distant Soviet past. It is here, here, on any given company, in a collective farm and an area such excesses and ugliness, but that is no reason for defamatory generalizations in other parts of the huge country is correct in much more in line with the tribute. In order to verify that the correct remote, lying outside the sphere of everyday personal experience of the world, the Soviet man did not have anywhere to go, it was enough to read the next issue of the newspaper Pravda, stopping to listen to a lecturer society Knowledge, and even more so to listen to the course at the University of Marxism-Leninism.
      For the mass of Soviet people, who lived in the space of social and cultural traditions, the reality beyond the due / existence, understood as little as possible. Permanent segregation (separation of clean from unclean) are in the context of the historical facts: facts that fit into a system of coordinates, due Asked антиномией / existence are canonical, the facts do not fit into this pattern, not observed or treated as unimportant, insignificant.
      Thanks to this relation to the historical experience history to some extent sakralizuetsya, becoming sacred socialist history with its myths and legends, a kind of parody of the Scriptures. Conceived in this way sacred socialist history, like any other kingdom in Moscow, Russia / USSR, and later in the post-Soviet Russia, is not once and for all data, frozen form, it is in constant motion, subject to review, audit, are rethinking the inversion the role and place historical figures and events.
      The most important manifestation of the vision of the world through the prism of the concept of Due / exists is related to the history and features of historical memory. It is rooted reasons for the strange, at first glance, the phenomenon, namely the volatility, not only Russia's future, but also its history. History in its discretion and factual specificity, with its inherent laws and logic can not adequately, and therefore falls outside the traditional picture of the world. Thus, considering the peculiarities of perception time, typical of the farmers in the reform period, a Russian historian Boris Mironov has noted that the farmer perceived time moving in a circle, cyclic and this represented, respectively, all in the world repeats itself, but does not change. Deviation from the normal, ie, repeated, the course of things it seemed to him as something exceptional, the work of unclean forces, the result of intrigues and witches because the temporary and transitory: Obomnetsya, obotretsya - everything will go as usual .
      Due to one of its modalities is an unfettered commitment to good, is incompatible with a rational understanding of the irreversibility of historical socio-cultural time. No time for proper and not irreversible, and a man with a sense of tradition, believes that at any moment you can stop a historic time and start again - from scratch. And if there is no historical limitations, if not very strong cause-effect relationships - then why not play with different models of social organization or even in ordinary / extraordinary times no redistribution of property?
      Dramatic correlation between the objective world that exists and permeate its emanation must inevitably cause social and cultural contradictions. This interaction between the two worlds genealogy goes back insensitivity of traditional culture in the management vision of the world, hence the tendency of the Russian rights to the ideological (mythological) interpretation of reality. Due nadrealno, it precedes the reality and not an appropriate to the actual existence, does not corresponds with him and not verified with it: The sense in which the idea is to live, is inseparable from the world chleneniya at two levels: the sacred normative or adequate as the only true reality and the existing base, understood as a false, inadequate empyrean .
      But this apparent power-volyuntaristicheskom event chaos is still some laws defined the process of constant correction and mythological correlate with key subdiskursami granted. For this purpose the following basic methods.
      1. Exclusion from memory, history and life in general facts, which to a greater or lesser extent do not correspond to be the case. At the instrumental level, this greatly facilitates the practice of vymaryvaniya evidence of those facts from written sources, from chronicles lists to our continued passion for the downloading of history textbooks with revised interpretations and, at times, content, historical personalities, the changes in the assessment of state and public figures. As the now classic example vymaryvanie portraits and references to an enemy of the people in Soviet textbooks, encyclopedias and the Stalinist era, Soviet izyatie library books emigrated or otherwise vpavshih authorities in favor of writers. During the Soviet period, only the history of the samples changed at least twice: the history of classes and class struggle gave way to the history of production and technology, but that, in turn, great history. But the main mechanism for the segregation of the facts as to their conformity / discrepancies shall be domestic in nature and works at the level of mentality, where a kind of internal censor.
      2. Ambivalent interpretation of the facts as they are understood in two contradictory versions. For example, witness the collectivization, on the one hand, and can remember to tell all its horrors, as it was in reality. On the other hand, he believes that everything is happening is similar to the description of the process of collectivization in the novel M. Sholokhova raised virgin. How to explain this paradox, whether it has relevance to the field of psychopathology, a split of consciousness? For the medical field, this phenomenon has nothing to do with, as in the original logic for due / all to explain the existence and understanding. With this perception of historical events are superimposed on each other pictures of what was in reality and what should be in accordance with the ideologically colored and legitimate myth.
      3. Selective recording of the properties and features of historical realities on the basis of their compliance must, of segregation, ie, Office cleaner (s) from the foul (not related). But the half-truth is the worst kind of lie, which, according to I. Kant, frightening dissolved in scintilla of truth, that it is a serious breach of duty in relation to himself, and inexcusable violation, as it touches the face of our human dignity hem and the most rooted of our way of thinking ... .
      The consequence of irratsionalisticheskogo antiistorizma is constantly reproducing infantilism Russian historical consciousness. In this context, history does not imply continuity, since coming to power of the new governor potentially brings with it the opportunity to upgrade the space and life. The recent past crosses, it rarely makes practical conclusions, which in the new phase could rid society of new bugs and testing. At the same time, subject to official persecution former ruler is a traditional consciousness alive participation and support, we love persecuted and offended: The leader, who lost his job, bought everything imaginable and unimaginable features ideal (we would say must - S.G .). He was like a companion in misfortune, and was good precisely because it no longer had the power. For example, returned from prison on amnesty P. came to one's place of work, arranged in the office of the Chief of debauch, had assaulted a police, calling them fascists, gadami, traitors, and at the same time accusing them of being poisoned Stalin.
      Arrival of the new ruler, but in the last decade, and the election of a new composition of the legislative branch, often accompanied by widespread irrational hopes for a wonderful change (update) the world or at least for the immediate improvement of their own financial situation. Correlation of these hypertrophied expectations based on objective socio-cultural realities in many ways unavailable to traditional consciousness. At the beginning of his government entity authorities could exploit the availability of the subjects deliberately exaggerated, almost sacred expectations, but over time, to dissuade his ability to transform world consciousness traditionalists can perform inverted with respect to the subject of the authorities by moving it in their submissions, with pole at the Good the opposite pole of Evil.
      For traditional media consciousness, thinking in terms of proper / exists, is more important than the content, program of the power of speech, and the personalities of who makes it. That is why the authorities of another entity so it is important to say a lot in common and little private, so as not to embarrass, not into temptation vvvodit little ones, giving them an opportunity to unite in support of persons ruler. When in the course of time the subject of the authorities lose their connection with the emanation should he provided in the existing, plunging into the world of isolated, nepodlinnyh fact, the buying shade nepodlinnosti. We may recall in this regard for our fellow citizens to the former rulers of Russia.
      So. Rulers, which provide the proper low, no lights, just forgotten, as an example, recall a number of communist leaders of the era of the sunset of empire. In this series are The Secretaries-General of the CPSU Central Committee LI Brezhnev and K. U. Chernenko. The rulers who in one form or another oppose proper, mifologizuyutsya as villains, which are equally needed in the traditional picture of the world, as well as the role of heroes and the righteous. Thus, by the end of the twenties of the last century Leninism is the only correct doctrine, with its opposite, its negation - antileninizm - in the form of trotskizma. Availability krivdy and evil had to confirm the existence of truth and goodness . Of recent times this mythological evil to a number of mass traditionalists identify Mikhail Gorbachev and Boris Yeltsin.
      But back to the beautiful statement of the Soviet empiricist 1950 - 80-ies in the Statement of VA Kozlov: Hello chiefs , in contrast, have been bad by definition. Twice convicted prisoner Shavarsh in April 1959, wrote a great plenty of cuss a letter to Khrushchev: You tolstopuzoe bloodthirsty animal, releasing their offal from the tears and blood of a noble man, standing in office, holding hands and teeth to the throne, promising the world a bright future, which will start after your funeral. Do not You Do, humane dog, Malenkova compelled to abdicate, on the pretext of bad concepts in agriculture, putting forward the candidacy of Bulganin for their own purposes ....
       Due oriented traditional conscience accuse them of the seven deadly sins, but for these charges is, as a rule, the main thing - they reduce the elevated image of the authorities, turning it from the laity within the scope of the sacral. None of the people and special thanks towards the king and the secretary general, the liberators, as they are no longer required due to, fell into heresy that exists. Let us remember our loved ones in time NS Khrushchev and Mikhail S. Gorbachev, whose images in the mass consciousness painted pronounced negative connotations. Quite the reverse image of a ruler is seen to stand up to examination for compliance must. It all human qualities are gradually eliminated, the subject of the authorities must - this is probably not the person and not even superman, but some supreme being.
      As an example, recall the classical current in the popular consciousness the images of Lenin and IV Stalin. Thus, after the dethronement at the XX Congress of the CPSU personality cult of Stalin in Georgia have been massive demonstrations in the overgrown riots, during which, in Tbilisi of Gori in trucks arrived about 2 thousand people; headache machine was designed by bronevik. There were two people zagrimirovannye under Lenin and Stalin, in a sailor dressed in the form of people with machine-gun belts over his shoulder . In this scene we see the manifestation of such, superhuman, qualities of leaders must, physical death can not stop their participation in historical processes, not only in the indirect form, but also personally.
      This meaning can still be a number of the many examples. For example, in 1977 in the journal of the Writers Union of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic was published poem, the poet with words that present the Soviet people could always obrattsya for advice and support to the communists number 1 VILenin: we have the right: Budi! We have the right, we will: Call ... Not sterpish you, I do not smolchu. We all call Ilich! . In this coordinate system of chiefs should act as a sacred from Communist kvazireligii in its Marxist-Leninist version, saints, who can be contacted with the individual and collective complaints, requests for correction of problems that may deviate from the line specified should be moscham which is always possible to worship and receive the support and comfort.
      Here we come to the fetish power, which is one of the most important socio-cultural consequences of the dominance paradigm Due / exists in the Russian cultural consciousness. Analysis of the problem helps to better understand the causes of Russia's sustained rejection of societal norms and values that are brought to our socio-cultural space of the liberal form of modernization. Authorities in the Russian socio-cultural tradition is more a metaphysical category, rather than social, and if the appearance, Parade The power level is presented as a social institution, a domestic, deep-level manifest its metaphysical essence. From a rational point of view of power is understood in two ways: as an actor and as a treatment.
       As distinct from Russia, to overcome the archaic / medieval syncretism European cultural consciousness of these modes of power established in its ontological antecedence difference. In the Russian cultural consciousness of power is one of the main subdiskursov should direct its projection, fulfilling a vital function of the system of mediation for the preservation of the minimum necessary for the functioning and reproduction of society obschekulturnoy integrity. The Russian authorities are not so regulated the local socio-cultural processes taking place in the horizontal section of society, how many links the brackets made for the reality of metaphysical, vertically ierarhizovannye poles of good and evil, thereby maintaining the integrity of the entire socio-cultural system.
      On the grounds of internal division and extreme isthmus median area of life, this system through some periods of time is critical outbreaks of tension, exacerbated by a slight development of horizontal linkages mediativnyh. In this situation, the social and cultural power is fastened and the binding force, the external with respect to the horizontal social peace: Do not Moscow State decree, the State Moscow. Power becomes substantsionalny character samoprichinnost and kosmologichnost, acquiring features of a priori will not repressed in the world, became no checks and balances. In this sense the breath Archaic, it weakened the projection, memories of this order of things, where it was important to maintain a sacred productive force of the king, meaning that an increase in abundance around: among the living beings and in nature ... (later - SG) in Scandinavian king ensures prosperity for the peoples of the earth and the sea, his reign of the fruits of the earth abundantly and female fertility .
      In these circumstances, the implementation of mediation has its own specificity, than the specifics of the West, where the dominant form of mediation is a dialogue. In medieval Europe, the relations between feudal lords, at different social levels, based mainly on the principle of dialogue and mutual obligations, because the dialogue - it is permanent internal contradictions in the minds of the subject in the search for constructive solutions while maintaining the tension of creative activity. In the space defined by the problems permanently adopted the position of I in relation to themselves and to another .
      As part of the Russian socio-cultural realities of mediation is carried out mainly through the monologue. In its various incarnations temporary Russian power in monologichnoy trying to form hierarchically organized space that exists, a horizontal world, to link its individual segments. But it mediativno-ierhaiziruyuschee impact on the world is not always successful, so, the main difficulty, which had not coped either Kiev or Moscow or St. Petersburg Russia, is precisely to this disunity people and culture, people and state, denying the cultural tradition of this strength and hinder the cure once occurred in the gap .
      This principle of streamlining the social and cultural space to block the development of a culture of dialogue. Monologue-hierarchical obschekulturnoy mediation in a systematic deficit mediativnyh functions as experienced sverhtsennost is regarded as the national cultural consciousness as samoidentifikatsionny sign. In our situation, it is clearly the lack of feedback between the authorities and society, which is why it so difficult to organize anything in Russia without the direct approval of the authorities.
      As one of the most graphic illustrations of what can be weak and the small number of political parties from power in post-Soviet Russia. The situation, when between the authorities and society is a gap, and the communication by its nature monologichno perceived not only as something normal, usual, but also as a tribute. Russia in this respect is not alone. A very large distance in the relationship and there is power in Mexico and India, other countries are, generally, outside of Europe. The minimum distance in relation to subjects, and there is power in Germany and the UK, ie in the countries belonging to the liberal civilization modern. Details parameters specific to different cultures, considering the Dutch anthropologist G. Hofstede.
      State power is another significant difference of Russia from Western Europe since the Middle Ages in the supreme power in Europe was restricted by law, serious violation which may subject the power to induce vassals to rid of him as a legitimate or illegitimate means. Go overlord via a line do not contribute to either strengthen his power, nor the conservation of size-controlled territories, as the man could find himself another overlord, he started to move together with their possessions. In an extreme case of man could in a sufficiently long period of hiding, and, if necessary, defend in the ancestral castle. Thus, the spread in various parts of Western Europe, and had certain common features of the sociocultural system maintained internal stability, curbing the destructive manifestations of arbitrary authority.
      But the cosmological status of the Russian authorities of its output beyond the morality and the law, put it over them: Lights, one sun in the sky, and the Russian Tsar on the ground. In Russian history, we have witnessed the development perceived by the Roman Empire (Byzantium) tsezarizma idea when the subject of the authorities, while a source of top-down hierarchical power relations, is a very high status.
       This idea of the divine essence of the imperial power dates back to ancient kingdoms. Thus, in ancient Egypt at the time the Fourth Dynasty king perceived filed as a son of the god Ra: the king, while outwardly, and was the son of his father, while a son of the supreme God. Isaac Massa suggested that the Russian think its for the highest deity of the King. Opinion is quite divided, and the alien moskovity, referring in particular to the authority of the church leader and writer of the late XV - beginning of XVI century, Joseph Volokolamskoe wrote that the king, by their nature, like any man, but his position and power is like the Most High God . Towering over all and all, the Russian authorities may hold volyuntaristicheskuyu policy, where any act of an entity authorities measurement: The truth of God, and the Tsar's will.
      For example, as can be in a so-called real socialism in their governance to check for compliance with the laws of the Soviet actions (decision), J. Stalin, NS Khrushchev, LI Brezhnev? This question is rhetorical in nature a priori, because not tried by the will of the royal. Declarative, inefficiency of Soviet constitutions, ranging from the Stalinist Constitution of 1936, it is clearly understood formed part of the Soviet society, one of the major requirements emerged in the 60-ies of XX century dissident movement has been: Keep the Soviet constitution.
      This raises the natural question, as it can be combined, srastit within the same legal treatment policy in the post-Soviet period to the standards of legal rights, much skalkirovannym with the legal systems of Western Europe and North America, and historically-rooted tradition of arbitrary authority? Inside this puzzling legal construct absolutely inevitable, not only vnutrennyayaya competition, but a war of annihilation, a natural desire to achieve greater internal homogeneity. The direction, more and more pervasive today, as the old Russian world: The truth is yours, muzhichok and polezay-ka in the bag!.
      In the sphere of morality, as well as in law, between West and East Europe, there are quite different. Moral Principles in the West are independent mediatsionnym regulyativom because all laws of morality become in the context of a radically monotheistic (Christian - SG), a universal form of faith .... Moral Principles in the east European continent is more fluid and relative.
      Since power is the first hypostasis should it determine the extent of conformity to him in the area of morality. As part of this moral system is morally all that compliance must recall the not-too-distant time when decisions and actions of the authorities were determined revolutionary expediency, expediency later now. As at neartikulirovannyh, but recognized the Convention by the Russian authorities have by no means a lesser value than the beginning of the divine, the religious sphere, and indeed can not be an absolute source of moral norms: All of God's power so royal. Moral rules is very easy to vary according to the discourses should, in cash subject to the discourse in favor of Power.
      The quest due to the inclusion in its scope all things are not true and the opposite poles of good and evil, as the apparent thirst higher - to the god, who would have been, and devil ... it's an ancient demiurge. He was originally, and he only, is on the wrong side of all the controversy, he does not know neither the day nor night, nor of good nor evil. It is - nothing, and it is - everything. We can not know it, because we know something only in contradictions ... . This should go and genealogical origins of one of the most important features of the Russian authorities - its ambivalence.
      In a culture where the median zone does not develop naturally, and cosmological poles of good and evil, suited to each other closely, the power can not occupy the median area of life, linking the system from within. It may take a combination of two poles, to be both, like a hoop compressing the system from outside. Some analogues of a similar state of affairs seen in the early Middle Ages, when, according to the Georges Dyubi, King of France, is not a separate part in a three way: because he remains on the order, that is, over the three-level generating court society .
      This feature located above, rather than within society, ambivalent and determined the ability of the Russian authorities to be both as a source of benefits, and Evil. On the one hand, and for the Soviet and pre-Soviet period of our history, we see the constant appeal to the authorities in the search for justice, because the institution of complaints and litigation are not generally characteristic of the society, based on redistributivnoy (redistributive) basis, on the other - we can see and at the same time a fundamental distrust of government as a possible source of good . Therefore, all who are trying to enable people to live, can not remain at the helm of government. Evil, concluded in the power immediately to deal with them .
      Evil, the authorities, not an ontological evil, it is dictated by an overriding interest must rationalize that not only impossible, but sinful, that's God gives power to whom pohochet. Traditional consciousness always justify the atrocities of various historical circumstances, the need to combat the global scourge, the enemies of the people, the fifth column. Most often, the criminal actions of the authorities are perceived as being dissonance, which are needed for greater harmony, so that those who hear this harmony, do not perceive them as discordant.
      Authorities neontologichny atrocities, ontological evil has a world that exists, not oblagorozhennaya Due sinful nature of man. On the grounds that neosznovaemoy sin of the traditional consciousness grows very tangible set of infantile, helpless without the leadership of this man is not only manageable, but needs to control and custody of the authorities: I love the Police, who, during the fire and myself went to the back of that I am not standing idly by. No violence can not , - said Konstantin Leont'ev. And for the liberal reforms in the reign of Alexander II: Do not reshimsya Do we ask the Father, the mighty (the sovereign), so that he continue to keep us terrible?.
      Are marked by ambivalence became a subject of the authorities, as syncretic slitnost mutually opposing started is a condition of adequacy for granted. Thus, in mifologizirovannom the image of Lenin emphasized the superhuman, beyond earthly yardstick genius and at the same time - the simplicity, humanity, the availability of communication. A similar, though slightly different way was at J. Stalin. He was also simultaneously immanenten and transcendent, a combination of tongue-tied speech primitive simplicity to mystify: Who hiss who myauchit who hnychet, / He alone babachit and tychet. In combination with other features of the image and style of behavior is characteristic of speech to create an aura of mystery, the invisible and neizrechennogo presence of secret sacred meaning, which reveals only a little shell for inappropriate verbal representations. It is intuitive operation generated Properly public expectations provides the crucial advantage of the next applicant in the struggle for power.
      Manifestations of power and the inadequacy of voluntarism is largely due to the subject of separation of power from real life, but the authorities in the preposterous invertatsii subjects perceived as a manifestation of the wisdom and greatness. Well said about the perception of the various actions of the authorities traditionalists Singer conservatism and the Russian special K. Leontyev: According to the Basic Law of the Empire, for the substantial spirit of our nation's legal and well everything that emanates from the supreme power. Act zakreposchenie legitimate and well, it was the division of people in the class (or state), all was well in his time - and the old, closed courts, and corporal punishment. Legally, well destroy the whole, not so much on the merits, but because the supreme power was so pleased ... We both think and do not believe that this Russian, who does not know how to think so, although he would have been the most honest and most useful to the mind in the affairs of their people ... . But for all of history has to be paid, and for the convenience of the laws that as the pole, and for throwing in the economy, politics, and this heady full power might imply a serious lack of internal restrictions, checks and balances, not only of imperial power but and the country as a whole had to pay a civilizational catastrophe of 1917.
      Mediativnaya function of power is critical subdiskursom should pronizyvaya world exists, the reality of our daily life. This subdiskurs due in Russia emphasized monologichen in its internal logic of the main build a power hierarchy (vertical) in all spheres of society, it is through them emanation due penetrate into the remotest corners of our earthly, everyday world that exists.
      Mediativnaya function of power in the world that exists manifests itself through specific social institutions, attitudes and traditions. One of the key institutions here is hierarchically organized by Institute of bureaucracy that is regular and empirical confirmation. Thus, Academician TI Zaslavskaya the following figures on the number of bureaucrats in the Soviet Union and in post-Soviet Russia: According to the information given in 1999 at the symposium Where is Russia? , In the USSR before the restructuring was 700 thousand civil servants, as in the present Russia - to 1200 thousand. In three and a half times more than a million people managed !
      Why is Russia the State is a great why bureaucracy so large in size and has played such an important role in society? External controls compensate for the lack of internal forms of cultural, legal, economic, political control and involvement as a personality in his own life projects, and in the affairs of society. Do not produce, but to distribute and redistribute, to address the issues as far as possible on an individual basis, in the personal negotiations, at least, not explicitly treated the rule of law. But it is not self-important here, the number of officials are defined as the number of functions that are borne by the State, its inherent tendency of an all-pervasive.
      When the liberal-oriented part of Russian society in the early 90-ies of the XX century, spoke of the need to minimize the role of the state, to reduce his role to the formula of the state - a night guard, that meant only one thing - do not prevent us to live, work, ourselves as a take care of themselves. Viable life of the world you will still wait until it is impossible, so at least do not interfere. You can be useful in only one - in the performance of police functions, ie in the construction of the Russian state, by analogy with the West, which is ... flourished because of the man with a gun to guard the interests and rights to the dollar, pound sterling, the mark . But the company has not received from the power of even such a minimum, it appears that the government can maintain basic order in the streets, only controlling the society, the media, the business environment entirely.
      So that, in Russia in order to curb street crime, you must, at a minimum, to establish an authoritarian regime, but to remove the roof over banditry businesses need to nationalize the business itself (at least large) and to establish a totalitarian / kvazitotalitarny mode. Bravo, gentlemen! It turns out that the state in Russia could be a large and comprehensive (Big Brother is for you), or no, that is, do not cope with an arbitrarily small amount left in him. This is a terrible dillema facing society, and perhaps to the most intellectual part of the collective entity of power.
      Now a small comment about irrationality, fetishizatsii Russian authorities. Rationalism is, rather, because the horizontal, earthly world that exists. And from the rationalistic arguments about the authorities, its nature and behavior traditionalists holds not only fear but also a deeper cultural significance and the ban because rationalization leads to the irrational destruction of the authorities. The power of the should not understand, but to survive, by analogy with the mechanism of functioning of religious consciousness, which is not ratsionalizuet and directly experiencing a unity with the extraordinary in an act of religious experience.
      Very much in the nature of power and features of the Russian state-building is due to the pendulum, inversion nature of dynamic processes in history and sotsiokulture. Note that the amplitude of oscillation is inherently a process of historical and socio-cultural dynamics in general and are apparent, including, in most developed countries modernize, the question of the extent protivohoda, presence or absence of common sense and a certain ambivalence extreme positions, the overall semantic space for dialogue. For the countries of the Western classical modernism, these variations provide a means of breeding innovation, incorporating parts of them in the conventional space of the social and cultural traditions. The subsequent stage of development remains a high degree of continuity with the previous, are subject to correction of private developments and artifacts.
      In Russia everything is different. As part of the Russian socio-cultural system, not the terrible oscillation, but the magnitude of its amplitude, the absence of the minimum necessary connection between the poles. A. Besancon notes that the Russian soil, at least since the Falsdmitry absolutely and regularly replace each other, two start. On the one involves the state of relative freedom, where the company is using the potential of private initiative and the efforts of enterprising citizens of accumulating wealth, skills, knowledge and other valuable resources. Another enduring start opposite the first. The form of expression - a state with marked totalitarian aspirations. Changing epochs is performed more or less dramatically, but the inevitable happens. In the second phase prevails values gosbyurokratii. Experience in the previous step resource expropriated, nationalizing, ogosudarstvlyaetsya .
      By the end of the past historical period is accumulated considerable potential for inconsistency between the root and ascending through due to the syncretic folk truth. Ship breaking the old order is perceived in excited tones, there are widespread hopes for a victory for granted. Here, thank God, was launched, said a trooper in the memories F. Stepuna of the February Revolution of 1917, becomes the earth, is baptized. Upon learning about the revolution in Petrograd, non-commissioned officer of the people near Tchoulkov said: Now is not a sin. The new historical stage initially perceived as an attempt to build the kingdom of God on earth, as closely as possible to the required or at least reward for the sins of the previous authorities.
      Movement of the pendulum of Russian statehood, accompanied by changes in the orientations and ideological oposredovaniy both in respect of the authorities, as well as the most activist-minded part of society. Only when approaching this allegorical, but quite accurately display inversion processes in the Russian history and sotsiokulture the pendulum to one of two poles, extremes in the amplitude of movement, there is capture and treatment in line with its current configuration of the faith of most of society. The movement that occurs between two mutually exclusive poles. The first pole is a pole almost unrestricted freedom, perceived in society as anarchy, which is weakening the laws, radically reduced sociocultural normative, co-exist and compete for a possible future raznovektornye trends in the development of culture and society. This Liberty Pole, and, in part, Chaos potentially contains a new socio-cultural space, the creative pole, where the feasibility of different scenarios for the country, where there are constantly in and imported from outside the social and cultural systems with new innovations. In other words, the Pole of Liberty - this is the existing pole, the pole of Life. Naturally, he removed most of the state, compliance must.
      Second Pole - is due to the pole approximation, the maximum possible in the historical context of embodiment. This - a pole of order in the Russian socio-cultural tradition is firmly connected with authoritarianism, occasionally degenerating into a totalitarian form of control over society. This is an absolute triumph of all pole and all the hierarchies, petty regulations, when all that is not allowed - of course not. In the sphere of attraction of the poles due to give a man, his energy, time, life in the name of the great ideologies, great state, charismatic authority. At the extreme, at once raises a lot of enemies, both external and internal, that they impede the final and irrevocable triumph should, and therefore must be destroyed. If the enemy does not give up - it destroys, and it is said in Moscow partkonferentsii 1968, the poet Sergei Mikhalkov,: tirelessly to hate the enemies - these are (true proletarian - SG) Humanist!. Thus, the pole of the Order must - even if it is not a pole of death, the best pole undead, some kvazizhizni, because as life can exist vyryvayas outside world exists?
      DS Merezhkovsky remarked once that the depth of the Russian reaction - not a political but an empirical, not here - transcendental. The reaction of - religion. It seems sometimes that the last essence of Russia - a religious commitment to the reaction . When approaching the pole should maximize reborn institutions of representative democracy is broken system of checks and balances, power everything begins to focus more clearly in the hands of one person, clan, party leadership. At this stage, the power elite need ideology, accept the majority society with a physical situation, allowing sublimate their own interests in energy, which for various reasons can not be used by man for self-realization in the horizontal plane of material existence.
      Ideology, demanded in a given historical period, postulates sverhlichnostnye purpose, includes in its different variations of concern for the preservation and increment the Russian Empire, the focus on the most archaic part of the socio-cultural traditions (nation), reliance on messianic teachings, whether Orthodox or Marxism-Leninism and as a significant historical temptation, various, including the aggressive forms of nationalism. Note that Russia has experienced a historic temptation of international socialism, to raise public consciousness, even a certain antidote, if not towards socialism as such, then, at least in relation to its international dimension. But the temptation of national socialism, more or less aggressive forms of nationalism in the secular, or, more likely, religious forms is yet to come, any mass antidote against him had not yet developed.
      The case, in particular, and that religion has a great potential etnointegriruyuschim that, apparently, is the temptation for the authorities, painfully crucial question of how to integrate society in a still relatively free information space, the lack of a big threat of war, the general enemy, the lack of ideology. But in postimperskogo, as in the past few years has become more distinct neoimperskie features of the state to focus on the subjects of religious identity can lead not only to national integration, but disintegration of the state, did not slow down - but to accelerate the onset of the third phase of deconstruction of the empire. It is clear that on a subjective level, the participants of the project the religion as a basis for a national ideology This is not aware of the intent of their actions directly opposite consequence, the awareness of what it led, and even then, apparently, not mass, is possible only after the fact .
       In this regard, another very important point. As the victory of socialist revolution in Russia and the establishment of Soviet power led to the degeneration of Marxism, which is defined as F. Stepun sin of socialism to themselves, and the use of orthodoxy as the basis for the formation of the state of religious ideology can lead to unfortunate consequences not least in respect of Orthodoxy itself. One of the founders of the Frankfurt School of philosophy T. Adorno observed under the same about the following: Modify religious to secular political ends is the reverse ... modern fascist demagogue comes with religious motifs only as atomizirovannymi with remnants of past religions, it involves the destruction of any consistent belief . Considering the wreckage of traditional religion, he collects what is suitable for its purpose, and throws the balance, despite all the pious words, he considers religion a very pragmatic point of view .
      Recall that the above processes occur (may happen) near the poles of the Order of the tribute. Depends on some time at the extreme ends, the pendulum of Russian statehood movement starts back toward the opposite pole. In the initial period of movement from the extreme end of oscillation amplitude correction process of the most distinct distortions, errors, and irrational, characteristic of this extreme state of socio-cultural system. This process is wide public sympathy, healed dizziness of success, from Thaw, taken measures to regulate the authority of arbitrary (or liberty, understood as anarchy), the basic legal norms. Upon further movement of the Russian socio-cultural pendulum is in the area of common sense, the zone balance of interests, political stability, a consensus of elites and society.
      It is the movement of the pendulum in the zone of common sense. Here it crosses its borders from the neighboring poles of a binary opposition ... Here it is close to the exit from the zone of common sense, there is understanding in society of the fact that the elite is going to make another historic mistake, for a while there is some new opposition, which is destroyed and or emigrated to the next segment of the pendulum motion. The door from the common sense break or gradually reveals, and we heat or cold burns regular utopia ...
      Modernization, particularly in its liberal form, does not correspond to the proper, because a complete samoosuschestvleniya person in the horizontal plane of existence. The success of modernization processes are clearly correlated with the rate of per capita income, the level of which may facilitate or block samoosuschestvlenie person here and now, in the horizontal plane of existence. Creating meaningful opportunities for the mass of material zhizneosuschestvleniya in existence and will mark the completion of the modernization, the attainment of a desired collective unconscious end of history, but its irony in secular rather than religious forms. Combating poverty is important in the context of the formation of massive layers of successful consumer goods, services, products of culture.
      Therefore, the more successful users in Russia, the less will be the life, sense of space not only for people underground mining vysey and the abyss of the spirit, but also for the pre-human at all. Zhizneosuschestvleniyu in the plane of material life komplementaren image of the world, reduced to a supermarket, where much has the formal (monetary) equivalent, complementary formed man of late modern life opportunities of open space.
      There are some alternatives, a choice between a successful self-realization in the horizontal plane of existence and the sublimation of unrealized potential, the possibility of earthly, horizontal samoosuschestvleniya identity and significance for the mass awareness of alternative, escapist life scenarios. Self human mass in the horizontal plane being pushed out by other, including asocial and vertically oriented life strategies in the marginal area. If this is not possible, compensatory options zhiznestroitelstva come to the fore as a Deputy samoosuschestvleniya in the earth's physical life.
      Implementation of the horizontal zhizneustroitelnogo project that, in fact, involves the modernization, leading to streamline, kosmologizatsii Russian social and cultural space. The process of modernization in line with the identity, with self-discipline, willingness to obey the median culture, able to control their vital activities, correlating them with the conventional ideas of norm and pathology, to be vital projects. Such a person could do without the behind the backs of Police. Human life in late modern society appears as a projective chreda dostizhitelnyh action for implementation, creation, making, though often only in the form of mass consumption.
      In the absence of meaningful opportunities samoosuschestvleniya in the world exists, that is material plane of existence, unrealized energy goes into the person must, in the scope of compensatory nationalist, messianic teachings, religious fundamentalism, secular and religious ideologies. The priority of the vertical measurement of life and all derivatives, bearing in itself the elements of the measure, including those related to domestic religious and philosophical tradition, most clearly expressed in a complex of representations, referred to as the Russian idea.
      In the post-Soviet Russia, this set of representations have a symbolic, symbolic meaning, the attitude that divides society into supporters and opponents of the projects that have a significant vertical component. At the same time having a vertical dimension of the ideological construction is effective in the process of mass re-socialization of people in marginal areas of life. Determinancy personal projects zhizneneosuschestvleniya basic material possibilities of society is the rule, the most effective in respect of the masses. This rule has some exceptions, private, a person can be quite active in both horizontal and vertical dimensions of life.
      According to E. Gellneru, Civil society can be likened a bicycle: it crashes when loses speed when loose economy can no longer ensure the continuous improvement of the welfare of the majority of its members. Most of it is ready to abandon the great principles, sacrificing for the welfare of illusory real freedom . Post-Soviet wave of modernization has brought the triumph of the existing, locally defined vector of the dominant social and cultural development from general to private, polistilistichnosti values and relativism. What used to be public, while in the field should the sphere of state interests, it was private. There is an enormous expansion of private, while narrowing the scope of subject to public control.
      Go, man, be free - he alchet should alchet Grand inquisitor, who said: I know how to. This is the only Russian. Not so much idea how many physiology - the feeling of freedom as something bogoprotivnogo - slavery, as a charitable ... In Freedom - sinful, slavery - the saints. Saints slaves. Holy Russia - the land of saints slaves . Exchange of freedom, autonomy, locality - for authoritarianism and the Cathedral, conditionally speaking, the festival of beer at a military parade and torchlight procession, giving the archaic sense of unity: I was not alone, many of us, we the people. In obscheistoricheskom context of modernization in Russia is closely linked with the process due izzhivaniya and approval of the ontological status of existence.
      III. Feudal - Kvazifeodalnaya empire as a form of social self-Russian cultural and civilizational system
      The cultural and civilizational system has a certain critical threshold of internal changes in the output for which it ceases to be itself, which lost its internal identity, samotozhdestvennost. The process of self-critical element of cultural and civilizational system occurs within a socio-cultural traditions, which not so much opposed to change, but rather forms the context of specific temporal and spatial attributes, for which the change becomes a significant form. Nevertheless, a common view according to which the system can be organized by socio-cultural form with equal success to evolve in different directions, that is Russia's socio-cultural system can be arbitrarily modeled on the Swedish, Chinese, Korean, and other models, regardless of its basic cultural and civilizational characteristics. This arbitrary in terms of their approach is based on a bizarre combination progressistskoy ideology, in its Marxist-Leninist editorial knows no limits of human will, and magic, Orthodox-pagan belief in a miracle, a feeling of fragility and indeterminate cause-effect relationships.
      Fernand Braudel in his book the Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II remarked that Civilization of its space is processed, organized by the people and history. That is why there are cultural boundaries, cultural space, characterized by extreme longevity: all the world is powerless confusion . The cultural and civilizational system can evolve in randomly chosen direction, it accepts only those innovations that contribute to its development and the inherent rejects everything that is contrary to it: Yes what's this attack, such that we have the science does not? And that's the conundrum: the law as long as you want, but nothing you do not go in store if you go against the spirit of the people . This case is not even in the sciences, and in rejection and a high degree of transformation inokulturnyh innovation, which, for whatever reason, does not form part of the historically formed the basis of social and cultural systems.
      The extreme difficulty in the realization of liberal modernization projects on the Russian soil as opposed to the tragic contradiction between what needs to be done, and that leads to the socio-cultural system. Thus, in an interview with Yegor Gaidar Izvestiya, remembering the beginning of the post-Soviet reforms, said that we have to think more about what can be done than on what can be done with the historical and social heritage. However, the system can not reject the entire flow inokulturnyh innovation, which gradually leads to the organization disistemnyh elements of an alternative system, which over time can replace the system in which it once originated. At the same time, the famous Polish sociologist P. Shtompka believes that most of the changes within or indifferent to the whole system, something that happens more often, contribute to its reproduction, rather than the transformation.
      Turning to the search for definitions, the most relevant Russian civilization meets its basic characteristics of the system, then this definition, in our opinion, is a feudal / kvazifeodalnaya empire. Note that the feudalism / kvazifeodalizm in our understanding is not reducible to the same socio-economic formations, as is usually written in Marxist textbooks. Feudality / kvazifeodalizm is not only an economic concept, but also a special system of social relations and lifestyles resulting from the specific structure of mentality, which, in turn, determines the corresponding picture of the world and the scale of values. I call Michael Voslenskomu: The problem of our time is not that the capitalist formation has already exhausted itself, and that the feudal formation has not yet been fully exhausted all opportunities to extend its existence. And it does so, in the form of totalitarianism, of the eastern despotism of our time: the real socialism, national socialism, fascism, class dictatorship politbyurokratii - nomenclature. All of this reaction die feudal structures embodying dark past of humanity . As part of our discourse, we mainly interested in Russian, is a specific variant of feudalism / kvazifeodalizma.
      Our main thesis is as follows: kvazifeodalnaya empire was the ultimate form of self inherent in Russian society as a socio-cultural system.
      The imperative of imperial opposition dooms the system to the West civilizational interaction with the latter, causing the process of alternation of liberal and imperial modernization, as a rule, separated from each other period of stagnation. Despite the recurring stories in the conservative imperial kickbacks, liberal modernization regularly bring in items disistemnye in relation to its basic feudal-imperial grounds. These elements gradually disistemnye organized in an alternative system. Whether or not this is still too weak alternative system, despite more than ten years of post-Soviet reform, replace the old system in the foreseeable future, the historical - a question to which there is no answer.
      The very possibility of this replacement is a part of contemporary Russian society, almost apocalyptic foreboding, in this context suggests the likelihood of completely losing our famous spirituality, opposing it on the basis of material well-being, or - or. In this regard, I would like to give encouraging words Pitirim Sorokina: The replacement of one basic form of culture to another does not lead to the death of the society and its culture, which are subjected to the transformation.
      Mental core of the traditional cultural and civilizational fabric is a system-myth, which is an interrelated set of core mythology. Therefore, consider the role and place of the imperial myth as sistemobrazuyuschego against kvazifeodalnoy empire. One of the major functions of myth is to provide exposure to the historical metaphysical, bringing the historical process is adjusted in accordance with the requirements of due. And until the lively medieval mythological consciousness, appropriate forms of cultural and civilized way of adapting to changing internal and external environment. Note that the very basic mifologemy of the backbone of Russia's imperial myth remain valid in the temporal (time) broadcast, with time comes change rather mediating their semantics.
      Consider the most important mifologemy, which breaks against the feudal system-/ kvazifeodalnoy Empire myth. So.
      As a critical mifologemy should be mythologeme of Holy Russia. It should be noted that the concept of Holy Russia is not so much geographical and historical, as close in content to the platonic Eidos, the notion of prevailing, regardless of ability or inability of their empirical realization, is always equal to itself, complete and indivisible. Among the Russian eschatological utopias mifologema Holy Russia occupies a central position, according to this blessed Holy Rus', which does not need, nor rights, nor External wealth, nor the order, because the lot is not of this world - have been taught the old Slavophils .
      The Russian mythological consciousness, vyryvayas beyond the geopolitical scope, aiming at universal scale, dominated by the spirit of legitimized various time oposredovaniyami idea of superiority, originally based on moral superiority, then spreading to other areas of life. In different historical epochs such universal scale became spheres of power and its subjects. Thus, apologia of Stalin became not only the Imperial sound, but also space, it merged with a history of something extraterrestrial, outer space. And Marxism in Russia was just an attempt to transition from a theistic world view to space . According to the proper Holy Russia can and must save the rest of the world, the situation appears stable to changes in historical and sociocultural context of messianic complex. Moreover, today, today, the search for ways of saving the world, Russia is not stopped. He continues .
      Over time mifologema Holy Russia is moving smoothly for the most important in our discourse mythologeme the imperial state. As a metaphysical quintessence mythical people-bogonostsa, without, however, little in common with a particular people living in the defined territory, speaking imperial state. Note that the interests of the State is a priority for both the individual and society as a whole. Imperial state continues the tradition in this respect, reaching from the ancient world: Previous of this common will of States to individual citizen was totally helpless and powerless ... The state was as if the earth god, a man is the servant of the god of the Earth.
      As part of the imperial mifologemy State and is a force that can lead mankind in the eschatological paradise, reach the end of history and the Millennial Kingdom of God on earth. Imperial state embodies ideokratiyu must, as not only a means of implementation, but also the divine purpose of the project, as an earthly paradise should not only be organized on the principle of the Russian imperial state, but also to be his own, expanded to all continents and has incorporated the entire human genus.
      Naturally, the cash position of affairs when the very notion of the state remains a mythological concept. Mifologema imperial state manifests itself in particular in the axiomatic assertion that the state should be strong, and the more powerful, the more close to be the case. Hence the need to strengthen and reinforce it by any means, regardless of the price of regular ukrepitelnogo project.
      The proportionality of the price, given the tragic coincidences and intersections in the history of XX century, the cause and raises questions not only in Russia but also in Germany. Thus, after the Second World War, right gegelyantsy revised thesis of good, which is allegedly a strong state, and its considerable potency recovery. Was taken the view that the state (functionally limited capitalist economy), in any case, protects the existence of a professional private individual, alone in an industrial society, as it results from the division of labor, but in no case rises above the exercise is not a moral dictate .
      We know from history that a strong Russian state is prone to an increased control over various aspects of life within the country, the dictates of morality in society and engaging in a zone of influence (gathering) regions, which are in different historical periods were part of imperial whole. An important tool for the implementation of these internal and external projects is the militarization of society, and a derivative of it - an aggressive and expansionist foreign policy. And this is not about the expansion as a goal, and the militarization as a means, but to proclaim (and try to implement) of geopolitical goals, which could serve as a means to justify the total regime .
      Not only we, but world historical experience shows that a strong state, especially in its totolitarnom and authoritarian ways, it is a conditional benefit, here is what podiskusirovat, with similar discussions taking place at the cozy home kitchens in the USSR / Russia, 60 -- 80-ies of XX century, and at the Nuremberg Trials in 1946 in Germany. Note that in liberal countries, the state is not weak, it performs other functions, and in particular relates to society, since it is not seeking to translate the social Absolute.
      Projecting into the space of history, mifologema of Holy Russia is disclosed through a set of subordinates of historical mythology, made from a position of the winner. Select the main ones.
      So. Moscow Russia is the only legitimate successor to Kievan Rus. Other Russian lands, in accordance with its pre-Properly role is only peripheral, the centers were initially Kiev, in Moscow later. That this mifologema does not correspond to historical reality - is clear. There was another line of succession, it is referred to as the democratic socio-cultural tradition, which runs from Kievan Rus through the principality of Novgorod and Pskov. But there were major Russian land, developing under the authority of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, where the city took Magdeburg Law and the relationship between central authorities and the people were governed in the conventional manner.
      Next mifologema of this series. Holy Russia (the Moscow kingdom, the Russian Empire, Soviet Union) is constantly surrounded by external enemies, that in different historical epochs adjacent internal enemies. Only during the last century to identify the internal enemies of leftist parties, including RSDRP (b), and then, after 1917, White, speculators, fists, nepmanov, technicians, writers, and red officers, clergy, representatives of various opposition movements and gradients of under the VKP (b), and the list can continue as long as you want and still it will be incomplete.
       In the late Soviet period, it added human rights organizations and dissidents in general. In 90-ies of XX century of the internal enemy diversified depending on the political sympathies and dislikes of various parts of Russian society, perhaps the first time in a selected historical period, the enemy is not imposed from above by legislation. Ten years without a domestic enemy and the only true ideology is so unusual, and authoritarian socio-cultural tradition pushes its adherents to find both. Another issue that their collective creativity in the field of ideology is not more regular interpretations on the theme amaranthine Orthodoxy, autocracy and nationality. In search of enemies until, fortunately, to trotskizme and accusations of espionage in favor of the Latin Empire, it also has not yet been reached.
      Today, decided to limit the tax charges, obstructions in the lease of premises in respect of the same human rights organizations and humanitarian funds with foreign participation, and with the participation of as yet beyond the authorities of the oligarchs. It is hoped to repeat our recent history, not so much as a tragedy, but the second time as farce. The next stage of the Russian imperial modernization / restoration has all the same within certain limits, and if you managed to break almost all domestic checks and balances in relation to the emerging system, the external constraints will be stronger, against them so patience is not simply a geopolitical decomposed, Yasaka (taxes) is not donachislish.
      If the real history of the Russian imperial state characteristic of a strange mix of isolationism and aggression, in the myth, it is seen as the aggrieved party for the truth. According to myth, embodied in the imperial form of Holy Russia had to endure undeserved resentment against treacherous and aggressive neighbors, but she never anybody did not attack. Neighboring land accounted join only when they ask for the hand of Moscow, and the provision of assistance to the sister, too forced, it had to provide, only responding to the call of someone oppressed people, and to deny this request can not be righteous, as the voice of the people is the voice of God . In the logic of the myth is not only possible but also necessary to forget that can not be artificial, a purely mechanical way tied to the body member, which is not associated with organic.
      Next mifologema supposed to give the whole world and especially the West, as a civilized alternative to the main feudal empire, a set of negative, and sometimes simply disastrous for the Russian human characteristics. Suspicious and negative perception surrounding the empire the world contributes regularly vosproizvodyascheyasya mezhdunarodnay difficult situation, which, incidentally, is supported by statistics and history. In Russian history is often happened that the war period greatly exceeded the peace ( 36 years of Peter the Great's rule Russia knew only one of this year of peace).
      According to another mifologeme, Holy Russia had to apply a preventive strike is not the purpose of aggression, but in order to forestall the aggressive intentions of the enemy, while oblagodetelstvuya as distinct peoples, and humanity as a whole. Entry into the Russian Empire was a boon for near and far to its neighbors, as true Russian is the perfect citizen of the world, and the Holy Rus - the first State. As an illustration of this rather lengthy thesis show excerpts of Leaflets period of Russian-Japanese war of 1905, designed for soldiers and officers of the army in the field: Let the enemies of the autocracy argue that this war - an autocratic whim of government. Who knows our history will understand that no concessions have led to the Yalu Ermak Timofeyevich move to the Irtysh, not outrage indicated Nevelskoy mouth Cupid, not imperial arbitrariness caused this war. Historically, the movement to the east, this war shows that Russia is only now met for the first time the brave and formidable enemy, as in the past few centuries, in its motion to the west, she met such in the Swedes, Poles and Turks. The war, as can be, and a number of wars will decide: whether to try the fate of Russia or Poland become her threateningly on the shores of the Pacific, as it stands threateningly on the shores of the Baltic Sea, the Vistula and the Black Sea .
      Mifologema Russia - the West. The West in such a system is not only an eternal enemy, but also the essential antithesis of Russia, glass, a place where very few returned. This was the first boyar children sent to study in Western Europe, so it was and, more recently, during the Soviet period of our history, when migrated to the West, our compatriots were seen remaining in the USSR citizens almost as residents of the back of the moon or the Australian underworld. Therefore, and say good-bye to the airport Sheremetyevo otezzhayuschimi seriously, believing - that forever: As innumerable wives harem all-Shah / change can only be another harem, I / has replaced the empire. This step was dictated by / so that reeked of burnt with four sides - / even cross the stomach, from the standpoint of crows, with five. / Duya in poluyu tune that your fakir, / I have passed the gauntlet janissary in the green, / chuya eggs cold their evil ax, / as at the entrance to the water. And now, with the salt / taste the water in your mouth, / I crossed the line . This is a feature between two worlds, Russia / the USSR and the West, almost as clear as the river Styx and the planes of Aeroflot in the role of the carrier - этакого collective Харона.
      It also has an independent value mifologema imputing to all, without exception, subjects of the empire set antizapadnicheskih properties. In the context of this mifologemy all built in opposition to it is an abstract in Russian and an equally abstract western human tezy and antithesis. So, the list of these major confrontation. If in the West since the late Middle Ages there has been a gradual shift to the individual life policies, there remains the community, which in its highest manifestation into a Соборность: Community Home of the foundation, ground throughout Russian history, past, present and future ... Community life in the substance of his ... is not based on the individual and can not be based on it, but he thinks the supreme act of personal freedom and consciousness - self-denial . If the West an understanding of private property in the tradition of Roman law, in the East - its rejection. The same can be said about privatizme, antiprotsedurnosti, desire to live not on written law, but intuitively facing truth (conscience). The same meaning can be attributed to a number of measures, and exclusion, and moderation in all human manifestations, allegedly supported by a sincere desire to poverty and asceticism. Today, these mifologemy in various, not always significantly affect the daily life practices of the Russians, distorting, however, the picture of the world was typical of the Russian human masses.
      According to yet another and very important in the context of our discourse mifologeme - the empire is only right and possible way of social and historical existence. The word Empire is not necessarily articulate, we are mindful that the Soviet Union applied to the description of Soviet power it was unacceptable. But even while respecting open or latent conditions tabuirovaniyu the basic concepts related to the empire, the essence of the myth remained fairly clear, since private mifologemy not only complementary, but fill each other in the traditional syncretic continuum of consciousness. Any signal explication of a mifologemy aktualizuet in the minds of the whole complex, by analogy with how acts samozakruchivayuschayasya nut (worth a bit shaken and nut wrapped itself is discarded liberal antiimperskie sociocultural blotches).
      These basic mifologemy fall into a more private and made available in all areas of space-time existence of society. They not only create poor image of the national history, but continue to influence the mass consciousness, distorting the actual picture of the world and bringing a mythological features. The continued, albeit in varying degrees, the relevance of these mythologeme continues to influence the dynamics and direction of the historical and socio-cultural processes in Russia.
      Observing the historical process of formation of the feudal-imperial state tradition, one can not mention its considerable stability and the ability to self in the context of changing historical circumstances. On the stability of this show and its numerous metastases in the day today, manifested, in particular, and in many sociological studies, the theme of which was related to freedom of Russians. Do not reproduce in full the relevant digital series give only a few characteristic numbers. In response to a question, that is preferable for you, full democracy, with weak guarantees of personal safety or a strong power, with the full assurance of personal safety, first of all, the situation chosen 0.5%, second 58,7%, only 4 - 5% of respondents did not ready to give, to change anything its freedom under any circumstances. It should be noted, and a sociological study concludes: It is clear that the underlying fundamental values have not been finally destroyed, and destruction suffered only a superficial system of priorities. Basic values, like a phoenix, reborn from the ashes .
      Turning to the causes of the formation of the above characteristics of Russian civilization, it should be noted that the origin is always an impact on people. The circumstances in which a nation is born, and which serve as their formation, have an impact on their future development . Formation of the Russian civilization was based on the North-Eastern Russia, the region is geographically remote from the area, which was Greco-Roman era of the ancient world. Geographical distance and the significant time lag from the time of the unified Roman Empire, made it difficult to sample the cultural inheritance of antiquity. There was a partial view of these samples from Byzantium, but after the division of Christianity in the Western (Catholic) and Eastern (Orthodox), raised serious filter against going to the Latin West's cultural influence.
      For centuries, on an objective (the Mongol-Tatar conquest) and subjective reasons Moskoviya pursued a policy of cultural isolationism in regard to the Catholic Western Europe: To a large extent, the peculiarities of the national character was formed Russian church, with its traditional orthodoxy and hostility to all foreign, especially to the Roman Christians , who hated and feared . This policy has contributed to extensive conservation and life, including business strategies, not without reason in the subsequent period of history of innovation, including technology, came from Europe rather than Asia, and not vyzrevali inside the country.
      This type of civilization emerged in the neighborhood with Europe as its unique antipode, where for centuries was the process of reproduction, development and strengthening of the imperial qualities of Russian civilization and otbrakovyvaniya neimperskih. All the historical test only reinforced feudal empire, which emerged from them even stronger and more monolithic, permanently expanding the occupied territory. Thus, for four years, the territory of Russia increased by 36 times. The fact that underlying the Russian history, fundamentally defined themselves not only the style of Russian land management, but in a way and style of all Russian doing and creativity .
      Classical feudalism, based on certain (contract) the relationship that existed in Europe, and its distant similarity that existed in the realm of the Moscow / Russian empire, which was unable to preodalet, eliminate mass public institution of slavery, has led over time to directly opposite results. As a further N. Danilevskiy, Russia is not involved in any good European or a European evil, how could it belong to Europe? Not true modesty, nor the true pride does not allow Russia considered Europe , of course, he sees Europe as a cultural and civilizational area.
      Early feudalism in Europe and the Kievan Rus looked very much similar, but with the movement of the center of Russian statehood in the Vladimir-Suzdal principality, and the capital of the state first in the Vladimir, and then to Moscow, the policy differences became more tangible. Near Russian researchers, including NP Pavlov-Silvanskaya, kvazifeodalizm recorded, in which many phenomena outwardly resemble their European counterparts, but in essence, the genesis and consequences of them vary dramatically. This is why feudalism developed in Russia is not specific to the classical patterns, but has turned into its opposite - an autocratic state with a mandatory service for all groups .
      Russia, unlike Europe, did not know the developed multi-hierarchical social structures, socio-cultural space of Russia, Muscovy, Russian Empire differed, according to A. Akhiezer, high dezorganizovannosti. In Europe, feudal relations were predominantly dialogic nature of both, the principle of Roman law, which read: What concerns all must be approved by all - has become a rational justification for the representation, and the need for representation was recognized in the XII - XIII centuries. At Moscow Russia feudal relations were predominantly monologichnymi. In Europe, a man with responsibilities, was also protected in the legal form of law: Feudal exploitation of the system of mutual obligations between people, which contributed to their regulation through the certain limitations.
      Violations of these rights, the restrictions society considered as a manifestation of arbitrariness, rather than follow the norm as well, non-compliance with its treaty obligations seniors released vassal of the need to comply with their. The sovereign right over time has evolved to the principle of corporate and civic and personal samostoyaniya. Vassals were obliged to do for his overlord only what have been linen. Dates of military service and mandatory payments have been foreseen, and the overlord if you wanted more, he was left with no other, as to enter into a new agreement with the feudal lords and in return promise to his new requirements benefits. For these treaties are gradually organized, even assembly or congress, under the name of Kourion, or parliaments. Of these, Kourion, and produces progressively medieval class representation .
       In Russian society, where the main justification for existence was subject to an unconditional service to the authorities, as hypostasis should not develop anything like this might not developed today. K. Cavelin, describing the features of Russia's social structure, pointed out that unlike other European nations, we have been boyars and has never happened before boyarstva, were, are and will be spiritual, merchants, petty bourgeois, artisans, peasants, but has never been and, apparently, will not be clergy, merchants, Philistinism, the peasantry in terms of real estates. All of our level, not excluding the nobility meant occupation, the general duty, tax or service, but never have they value a public body, public formations, with the deposit of political or public communication of life .
      In Europe, the development of the feudal model had reached its logical conclusion, as a natural foundation for the construction of bourgeois civilization modern. In our homeland feudality / kvazifeodalizm as stadialno previous tribal patterns and stadialno follow bourgeois, coexist. But as the Russian version of feudalism / kvazifeodalizma is an effective tool for the construction and reproduction of the imperial type of statehood, and he took the system-the situation in Russia's multicultural society. And the Bolshevik revolution in October 1917 gozhda new forms, new words loaded (the country - S.G) further feudalism, which assumed the mission to lift Russia out of underdevelopment, to build a good industry, and so on feudal methods.
      There is seen in the history of law, under which the ancient and archaic society living according to tradition (sacred precedent), mainly on the feudal arrangements of liberal laws. In the area of the right of society to live under feudal arrangements, and our society hardly ever lived in a formal, written law. This does not mean that formal laws did not exist, even if poorly, and conflicting, they have another question that their formal deficiencies and the severity offset the opportunity to negotiate in private, turn a blind eye to their partial or even complete failure. Contradictory legislation has brought a degree of freedom, the possibility of any agreement with the authorities in the face of numerous officials.
      The Russian peasantry for centuries lived on the customs, customary law, which in the period of liberal modernization, carried out by Alexander II, was the basis for the work of parish courts. Russian society as a whole continues to live on the arrangements with the addition of legal rights, effective only as long as they are not in conflict with the interests of the contracting parties. The tendency to live on formal laws, demonstrated some of the urban sub-cultures, did not find understanding in the community.
      Feudality plays and feudal type of property. This is not private property, as in a liberal society, while at the level of returns and non legal standards often argue that this is the case. Feudal property - it is relations between the subject property and power, by virtue of which entity receives the right to own (feeding, collecting rents, etc.) in exchange for service (or, in milder form - loyalty). Since the feudal imperial system of ownership of power determines ownership of property and the property itself, despite a number of pravoustanovleny, almost vulnerable, the officials and the situation in the hierarchy which is higher than that of the formal owners.
      The owners are well aware, and as pointed out in the middle of the XIX century NG Chernyshevskiy, children they usually hurry promenyat trading activity in the service. This trend is generally characterized by the feudal society, a similar process has been characterized, for example, and for the Italian city-states, where the ship, merchants preferred to buy and maintain a way of life characteristic of the aristocracy. This practice led to a profound stagnation, canning backwardness that has become the center of the world of bourgeois England, rather than the Italian city-states, had by that time, much more rich trading tradition.
      To a large extent available, direct ownership of power, an example which may serve not only the total governmentalization entire economic life in the USSR, but also the practice of pre-revolutionary Russian authorities. Thus, the imperial stage, Peter's been a massive modernization governmentalization property: In the 1714g. Peter I imposed restrictions on the ownership of land: All private fish were selected to the treasury, and apiaries and bortnye land, as well as all private mills declared state and on this ground coated payment (1704), all factories and plants have also been declared state and overlaid payments, monitoring of their activities conducted Manufaktura-board, the right to the earth passed the Treasury (1719), all forests of European Russia have been declared State Reserve (1723) .
      Governmentalization property continued in the future, particularly active in the First World War. In 1915, special meeting were set up on defense, fuel, transport and food, and several committees. They were forced, contextual actions, it is packed in the processes of state regulation of the economies of the warring countries, but in other countries in these structures after the war had been dissolved, transformed, reduced levels of authority, and only in Russia with a state regulation has become such a comprehensive victory for the Bolsheviks value.
      Contemporaries event quite understand the reasons for this provision was that Russia - the country is poor, the uncultured, the negrazhdanstvennaya and therefore it processes exhaustion and disintegration must have been read the most vigorous pace. There is, therefore, there was no more urgent need for an objective in the conscious regulation of economic processes . That came to power the Bolsheviks developed creative methods used by the royal government on the impact of non-economic national economy, by force, bringing the power of this component to the extent possible perfection.
      Very detailed economic aspect of Russian feudalism / kvazifeodalizma from OE Bessonova and S. Kirdinoy, illustrated handout of the Russian economy. Hand economy is an economic system which has the ... the following features: the entire property (land, capital goods, infrastructure) is a public service: the individual is often called business entities under the conditions of the rules of its use and are administered by special state bodies. The basis of economic organization is the service work - participation in the labor process in the public-service property and (or) to perform certain functions in the public interest. Providing material conditions to carry out their duties in the public service through the institution of property distribution. Implementation of production problems and the creation of wealth takes place through the Institute for delivery. Feedback signals reflecting the reactions of all participants in the social reproduction problems, passed through the institution of administrative complaints. The driving mechanism for distributing the economy is a mechanism for coordination of delivery-distribution of flows .
      And it is to ensure that this mechanism worked in the logic of the distribution of feudal economy and needs a strong state power. The function of mass redistribution - is its function. In the face of Russia's economy is dominated by kvazifeodalizma handout, but the market is just compensation, an additional feature. The concept of distributing kvazifeodalnoy economy allows to understand the seemingly несуразности, excesses and distortions that occur in the Russian economy today. They are established in terms of market economy, but not in terms of distributing the economy. SG Kirdina evidence suggests that in different societies, the dominant role played by either the market or distributive (redistributive), the economy, and we can not change that given in its sole discretion.
      When in Russia, there is usually a brief period of extensive development of market relations, it is only meant that the market at this stage necessary for the development of distributive economy, after the transition to the next higher level of development which it will leave a market, only the additional, compensatory role. In Russia, the Soviet period have almost no full-fledged market economy and not a class of European type: Even the Russian merchant old regime that profit unclean ways, and made millionaire, was inclined to consider it a sin, this sin zamalival and wanted to light a minute about another of life , for example, strannichestve or монашестве. Therefore, even the merchant has a bad material for the bourgeoisie of Western European type of education .
      As part of distributing the economy to function and industrial production of the Soviet era, where people feel part of a organized, to identify E. Durkheim, on the basis of the mechanical solidarity. Industrial socialist project to reproduce the traditional elements of community attitude, characterized by its rejection dostizhitelnoy person, their actions destroying traditional syncretism, collective forms zhiznestroitelstva.
      Even the modern Russian society resists the final dissolution of archaic for its genealogy sinkrezisa, personal fate, individually, the difference in incomes in general, and the breakdown of income by sectors of the economy, particularly in the payment of professional skill, individualistic, outside groups, a model of success at all. German researcher V. Pfayler noted that such representations manifested inherited from the Byzantine Empire of the Universalist ierarhizirovannom the manner in which the individual is included in the collective structures themselves are part of God's cosmic order.
      The traditional attitude to the property revealed a surprising and new, post-Soviet phase of historical development, when at the beginning of the privatization of people just appointed as the largest owners of public property. This is exactly what occurred early oligarchic state and the oligarchs themselves. That is why the authorities have maintained a sense that the owner was not present, so the property can be re, to see how well spent the proceeds of property, and after paying taxes, let us say, they aim to buy the English soccer club, or reinvested in the oil. In the traditional framework of the Russian socio-cultural class system should serve, entrepreneurs need to share, with excess taxes to fund various social programs, be paternalistami in respect of their employees.
      Feudal property in Russia is always in principle otchuzhdaema that, in point Fyustelya de Kulanzha, consistent with the general characteristics of the feudal order in which the land is in possession of this kind, that its owner is not, strictly speaking, its owner ... Conditional land use, ie subject or quitrent or services, in a word, a well-known duties, and failure to perform these duties will result in another loss of possession . Note that in today's Russia, under the ground means any type of property in general, from the giant oil company to beer stalls. The abundance of formal laws and regulations, declaring certain legal safeguards against the property must not be misleading. In the Russian people to the powerlessness of public authorities, regardless of the success in the economic arena. Authorities can always select the property from the owner, who, thus, there is always the owner of a conditional.
      An example of this is so even when the sovereign of Moscow, only give an example of how people came to trade, the emerging Russian capitalists, Stroganova. Here is what writes about the attitude of the king to the largest businesses of its time, traveled to Russia the second half of XVI century, Doctor of Civil Law and Master of Theology of John Fletcher: Envy and resentment at the wealth of whose any hands, and especially in the hands of man, led the king pick them first in a piecemeal, sometimes 20000 rubles at once, sometimes more, until, finally, kept only a very small part of his father's property, while the rest went to the royal treasury. Their names were: Jacob, Greg and Semeon sons Aniko .
      So there are now. It is important to remember that the property - this is not the good of belonging to a person, a legitimate and stable embodied attitude. In this sense, the modern Russian business owners are not, because their ownership is conditional, regardless of the current situational or neblizosti proximity to power can bring to any liability for breach of the controversial legislation, tax minimization, etc., in the air constantly hovers question - who next? If in order to achieve these goals are not quite fit the old law, it is always possible to fix and / or action to give retroactive effect, ie to assess the events of the past in terms of volatile interest of the ordinary moment.
      In Russia, any property, except property authorities - conventional, temporal and contextual, its own sharp until this ownership is not in contradiction with the interests of the authorities.
      Therefore, the theft of our homeland is very special, manifested not yesterday, not in the post-Soviet phenomenon. There are the words of Ivan IV (Grozny), addressed to an Englishman, goldsmith: Russian (lieges - SG) are my all thieves. The phenomenon of the legitimacy of Russia's theft worthy of attention. Let us recall the definition of E. Trubetskoy: burglarious ideal is in very close contact with a special dream of the people, and its totality, and moral disengagement, we think, is defined by two main factors. The first factor is the archaic origin equalization relationship to nature and to the cultural and civilizational environment: Alienated civilizational Wednesday - the same forest where the whole lot, and from whom, but nowhere - not ubudet, so the boundaries between crime and normal behavior very vague and very conditional. This is seen even in the vocabulary. Try to translate into English: he took that bad lies. The exact meaning of those words would have rastolkovyvat long. That kind of phraseological up in the English culture simply inconceivable .
      A second factor is the weakness, if not complete absence of private property. As an illustration, once again turn to the notes from life J. Fletcher: If anyone has any property, then he tries to hide it, but can sometimes giving to the monastery, and sometimes zaryvaya in the ground and in the forest, as is commonly done with ... invasion of a hostile people, cramped and deprived of all that acquires, loses all hunting for work . The boundaries of the concepts of a and off in the public consciousness are vague and largely conventional. In this system of values of coordinates basic ontological status of any material is the property of no man. This motif is present in popular consciousness: the sky, earth, air, water, forests, oil and gas (subsoil at all) - it is divine, the total.
      That is why so strange, was ineffective Russian privatization of state property, where the actors involved in this process, there was no assurance that private property in Russia - it is seriously and permanently, in this matter was not conventional certainty and, consequently, was not achieved the necessary degree of legitimacy of the process. The process of privatization of Russian state property was intended to not only improve economic efficiency, but not least was the determined pursuit of the ultimate change in the socio-political order. State bureaucracy is not aware that the transfer of ownership to private hands irreversible act, not subject to suspension as a principle as the foundation of the Russian economy. This is initiated by numerous power re-distribution of property, hence the lack of respect to the institution of property.
      It is natural that such a mentality can grow predominantly extensive, parasitic life strategy. In the most vivid form of mental predisposition to use them is manifested in the transition, crisis stage in our history. Thus, in the early 20-ies of the XX Century PB Struve estimated first, preliminary results of economic activities of communist government in Russia: Communism, these three years he lived at the expense of the capitalist, and in particular military-capitalist economy, on account of his accumulated stocks. Now, he ate the stocks - hence the extreme aggravation of the economic situation of Soviet Russia. This exacerbation of parasitosis is a crisis-predatory economy (emphasis added - SG), vvergshego country in the natural and economic reactions .
      But these vital strategies considerably over the Soviet period of our history, made available at the Russian space beginning with the heavy use of slash and burn agriculture, continuing in some parts of the country until the XVII century, when the economy was based on slash farming, which is based system management, based on lack of ownership of land and forest. After podseku abandoned, ... no man's land again. This extensively-parasitic strategies and is consistent with the historical focus on the export of raw material: only in the XV - XIX centuries removed hemp, timber, honey, furs, and in the last quarter of XX - beginning of XXI century - oil, gas, ores and metals, all the same forest. By commodity exports during this period only added to the export of arms, which at the beginning of that period, Russia purchased.
      From the above it is clear that the commodity nature of our exports is not an invention of post-Soviet elite zlokoznennym, it produces not only on our natural resources, but also in much of the extensive life policies, the country is, in fact, lives on the natural rent in cash the form of paying the rest of the world. This strategy has not yet been completely exhausted itself, ahead of Russia's participation in the sale of quotas for polluting the environment, the core of the business, and on task, and environmental process, provided the Kyoto Protocol. Politics is largely detrimental to a large part of Russia's population living outside the commodity areas. The research led scientists to paradoxical conclusions. When an external well-being and economic growth in Russia a real human potential of the rapidly deteriorating. Sales of raw materials and high energy prices create the illusion of progress within the country for development, but in reality it leads to an increase in wealth mining regions and the impoverishment of the non-primary provinces . Extensive strategy for life are reproduced in the Russian practice of constantly and at various levels.
      In the post-Soviet period of our lives most of our fellow citizens had used pre-adaptation strategy, including the care of a large economy to a subsistence economy, in its maximum expression involving an appeal to an even more archaic form - collecting of all types, ie collect not only the fruits of the earth and everything that is bad if the good is - too. In this respect the right of property can be pribrat niche. The choice of adaptation strategies, data showed, in particular, the specifics of individual and collective thinking, limited or even impossible to operate capitalist abstractions, most important of which are money, different kinds of securities, and off-exchange transaction, ie any transaction, separated, apart from the specific manifestations of the material world.
      Configured for extensive parasitic, furtively strategy envious of life in a more successful and adapted to people minds traditionalists are not able to make his move to the intense, capitalist strategies of life. Envy - one of the most powerful social emotions, it largely determines the current collective depression. Envy can work social regulator that limits the personal accomplishments, and at the same time unite society in a single against the growing social inequality caused by the rapid growth of prosperity and the rise of individuals and groups . The fee for the general consciousness and envy among other things, all the more for the conduct of his practice - great. In such a system, values of coordinates do not need a man himself, the lack of visual perspectives of individual development leads to a very low life expectancy, and negative demographic projections.
      Cash state of affairs contributes to the unpredictable dynamics of social mobility, where people can climb the social ladder from the bottom of her top, and can, conversely, down from the top to the bottom. Only during the last century, these processes occur in large numbers Oktyabrskogy after the 1917 revolution, at the height of Stalinist repression second half of the 30-ies and in the first post-Soviet decade. At the same time, these periods of intense dynamics of social mobility alternate extreme deceleration, up to nearly complete obstruction boundaries between social strata. The last and the next time an example of such a drastic slowing down can be a socio-cultural situation in the country during the so-called Brezhnev stagnation. It should be noted that Russian society is not so clear and consistently reproducible system of social stratification as a Western society. Explosive, inversion of social roles contributes to the variability and liquid state properties.
      On the issue of ownership is closely related and the problem of freedom. In any society is free to the extent that it is an independent owner. He had no property, so he is the property of a higher social authority. The ancient slave was deprived of his property and the property owner was. Castle farmer had put on his little farm, and, consequently, the sector of freedom, a small but involving the possession of certain rights. But the notion of inalienable human rights concerns, rather, to Europe, but not to Russia, because our feudality little like the European. Russian peasants zakreposchalis not in the unit, but in large numbers in the late century, when much of Europe, except Poland, and some German principalities, they always have been free. Since Peter I, the farmer got into a state of slavery, and against the slave strange to talk about legal rights of ownership and freedom.
      Reflecting on the Russian Revolution of 1917 and ensuing Civil War by R. Pipes remarked that freedom was understood as an exemption from the restrictions imposed on people by the fact of their common life and the interdependence between them. Therefore destroyed before all those in whom was embodied in a given place of the idea of the state, society, order, order. In urban areas - the police, administrators, judges, the factories - the owner or manager, the very presence of which resembled that need to work to get the fee ... in the villages - a neighbor, the nearest country estate, a symbol barstva, ie power and wealth at the same time ... .
      The less legitimate, legal registration and not alienated non-property methods, the lower the legal registration of the rights of the individual and the merciless and senseless rebellion, the greater the rejection of all and any hierarchies, including culture. According to a just observation PB Struve, after the revolution of 1917, the whole population, together with the right to personal property, it is taken away economic freedom, and so cut the roots of the most personal freedom. Russian Communist experience in the new environment once again confirms the sociological and political truth, saying that the property and economic freedom is the foundation and the Palladium of liberty in all its manifestations, even the most subtle and vertex . That is why, with all the imperfections and inconsistencies in the processes that occurred in Russia in the last decade of XX century, they have to find more or less property, and because of this - more or less freedom.
      But the owners more difficult to manage, at least in the traditional imperial paradigm, so the authorities there can be no desire to bring the final feature of the privatization of the 90's, I do not want to finally legalize the owner. Accordingly, it is not and can not be the owner wishes to maintain an appropriate level of civil liberties. As a result, stored and reproduced all the same things about which he wrote in the poem, Brodsky I. 1972: It must be when they look ahead, / markedly over Tver, on the Volga: / grow other people / the service of poverty long. / Rather indifferent to you, / as a quick and deft in the work / supply of privately fate / cruelty to total freedom .
      In most recently, the Soviet period of our history in power under the slogan Older Think about home and then about himself imposed a feudal society, in its essence, the guilt. Here, and the duty to collect in the fields and vegetable processing for the portion of the crop, which is able to gather, to military service in the army, border guards, escort parts, work in stroyotryadah build construction method popular here, and non-economic coercion to work, calls the police, Sending over 101 km, to places not so remote, the belief in the absolute power of the collective over the individual (you can not - teach, do not want to - make). And all this in a relatively liberal years of stagnation, that really speak of an earlier period of Soviet history.
      What is feudalism, because there is nothing from the treaty (represented) the relationship of a classical type of feudalism? Yet the system of vowels, but mostly undercover agreements and arrangements between the authorities and society still has. You will comply with established rules of the game, you will be silent when it is necessary - the system will bring you to a Meal distributor, will increase the chance for a strong, but nursing overbearing position of the hands of authorities. But behind the facade of the kvazifeodalizma seen more deep and fundamental principle of the state of slavery. Especially revealing in this respect, the Stalin era, when people from feudal fiefdom of collective farms and businesses took on royal building in the Gulag, it was the apotheosis of slave labor. Towards the end of life VV Shulgin noted that the slaves - gave Stalin squalid collective farmer bread, slaves - slaves, soldiers defeated Hitler ... Slavery has two faces: a terrible and creative. Slaves created the pyramids and the enormous use of the Nile spills. Slaves managed by clever priests, there is a phenomenon which is worth thinking about .
      This corresponds kvazifeodalizmu and social stratification of the mature Stalinist society. In the social hierarchy was mainly obscheimpersky level - at this level, people belonged to the Motherland, the Party and personally TOV. IV Stalin. The following has its own departmental feudal level, and the man belonged to office, and at the local level - the mother plant, or collective farm. It should be noted that manipulation of a person coming from the chief of the imperial social institutions, is not limited, while the feudal relationship with the parent bodies of the lower level are governed by the will of higher authorities. In 90-ies rather widely observed the post-human desire to be the clear top-built team, or at least have the roof (you'll whom?), Explains how in the specific period in our history, an attempt at hand, under the power, Mr find a personal and property security, protection against violence of any kind, defense of the strengths of people насильства .
      What are the reasons why we still can not get out of this state kvazifeodalizma? One of the main reasons for his slow transformation and izzhivaniya is that he is effectively running a form of society. In these circumstances, a State with a set of the above properties is problematic transition from feudal repression to a more rational and humanistic forms of organization. The company did not give up their archaic grounds and largely traditional syncretism, simply can not have another state, but for the same reason it is not possible and further immanent development of the state.
      Drawbacks liberal forms sponger poorly and inefficiently operate on Russian soil. Anchoring, rooting disistemnyh innovations made in the sphere of social and cultural processes of modernization, especially its liberal stages are extremely difficult to direct exclusion in presenting historical convenient opportunities, including the next transition from liberal to the imperial model of modernization. Moreover, if the period of freedom breathes fragility, then the alternative appears intact. But in reality it can not samovosproizvoditsya long. After all, he has consistently wasting any national resources, wasting their intensity and determine the duration of its existence .
      Kvazifeodalnaya nature of the Middle Ages, in its essence, a higher authority is manifested as downward movement of the administrative and hierarchical levels of diversity in social life and are apparent in the forms of subsistence farming, including our famous barter, to exchange services for rent and taking different forms in neighbors home values - land, in this interpretation to be the management of territory and property at all. In this system the presence of a hierarchy of status, employment service, funeral tributes, its own system of feeding, their liege court. A similar system is reproduced in the relationship, on a scale of cities, regions, provinces, where kvazifeodal sought to rise above all the god and the judge, showing the independence, militancy, self - ... the typical features of the feudal barons.
      This kind of elevation to a state secret, and at times, and the apparent nightmare for local officials mystery and, at times, manifest dream. One can not but recall the general jubilation over the regional program phrase Boris Yeltsin, dating back to the early 90-ies of the last century: Take as much sovereignty as long as you can, sovereignty, partly involving the situation where, as in medieval France, according to Glassona, given in fief everything: land, taxes, road fees, court and violence, rights, rents, office.
      As part of our chosen theme of modernization transformation is very important to the question why modern Russia at all levels so easily taken the life of bandit concepts? Because these concepts reflect varvarizovanny but organic to the public consciousness the way ligaments rannefeodalnyh and tribal relations. The power of the bandits in something akin to the state, but without being burdened by the need of service due, she, oddly enough, is seen as a different, suschemu involved, it seems to be easier to negotiate.
      American Robert Patnem in the book of democracy to function is considering different ways of development of northern and southern Italy, correlating with the reasons for the spread of mafia-dominated society in a vertical or horizontal structures: In the XIX century, where in the XII century, established vertical ierarhizirovannye structure, there is power of the Mafia , entrenched the so-called folk mafia culture. At the same North and Central Italy, where once there were city-commune, there are associations, unions, parties, mutual aid societies, etc. ... mafia - not robbery, banditry is not: it sells the trust mediates in the absence of the state. Vertical ierarhizirovannoe State, which has no horizontal ties - is predominantly latent, absent state. Mafia fills this hiatus, assumes to act as a legitimate authority . Suffice is axiomatic assertion that Russian society is dominated by vertical linkages, and lack of horizontal, until the reproduction of this state of affairs in the configuration of transport networks, when a neighboring region is easier to get through the capital of the state.
      In the feudal spirit in post-Soviet Russia has the privatization of violence, the transfer of power to the common functions of the state to local levels, resulting in a large businessman was forced to create their own powerful security system, complete from the Interior Ministry, KGB and other security forces. The existence of their own power structures is a prerequisite for conduct of large and sometimes medium-sized businesses. In these processes, a clear analogy to the situation of the feudal baron, who should have been able to arms, predvoditelstvuya group of his servants, to protect their own, because otherwise it would not be a baron, or a vassal would not serve him, and his land its server and villein in this era of the rule of law would become a strong easy prey of its neighbors, warlike barons, or overlord .
      At times it comes to the formation of entire private armies, as well, in the early 90-ies of the security service Most-Bank in Moscow had been so numerous and professionally, that the government has used its employees for the storming of the City Hall (the former building of the CMEA) at the time of the October events of 1993. At the middle and smaller levels of business was such a thing as a credible businessman, ie, entrepreneur, who, as part of its business power component, a group of people who perform delicate assignments consisting, typically, a former athlete and / or people from the criminal world. Here we are again fails of the European Middle Ages with its understanding of personal liberty, the understanding in some overlap with perceptions of freedom in post-Soviet Russia: Freedom - is a guaranteed status ... She could be realized only in a state of dependence, where the supreme guarantee the respect of his lower rights. The free people - is the one who has a powerful patron .
      Feudal / kvazifeodalny nature of the various areas of Soviet life did not go unnoticed, not only domestically, but for the most perceptive foreign observers, to which must be attributed, and G. Boll: hinted tsarism compared with communism in the USSR in the XX century is enough - and they all seem to me convincing. For the Soviet Union is clearly feudal state in which oppression is carried out under other sign ... , and then, referring to the hierarchy built everything in the USSR, rank, ranks, adds: I want you to understand: the Soviet Union - complete feudal state .
      An 90-s of the authorities attempt to depart from the tight control over various spheres of human life has no power to carry out the functions of civil society, development of horizontal linkages, and by the spontaneous kvazifeodalizatsii post-Soviet space. The magnitude of this process is impressive - it shows a massive mental basis for his samorazvertyvaniya. But even that kvazifeodalnoe state in which spontaneous discharges into the Russian society in the weakening of the imperial state media, is more progressive, suggesting a greater degree of personal freedom than lying at the basis of the principle of the empire state of slavery.
      Chapter 3. The modernization and socio-cultural processes in Russia since 1991.
      I. Sociocultural the situation in Russia after 1991
      The events of 1991 in Russia and beyond are estimated ambiguously: some give to them the great importance of social revolution, while others consider them nothing more than nomenclature coup, accompanied by a shift of power from one bureaucracy to another clan. In a second version shows a direct personal continuity of Soviet and post-Soviet elite. Thus, the head. sector, the Institute of Sociology RAS O. Kryshtanovskaya notes that the results of studies examining the elite sector, the Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences, over 75 per cent political and 61 per cent of the business elite - are from the old Soviet nomenklatura. The new political elite was mostly from the former party and Soviet workers, a new economic elite has expanded from activists and leaders of Komsomol, the leaders, managers .
      These figures indirectly show that the social revolution is in many ways with the tacit approval and in direct support of a large part parthoznomenklatury, en masse Pryadko, indeed, and absolutely overwhelming part of society, to dissuade the communist ideals. According to a just remark W. Bukowski, for the majority of events parthoznomenklatury August 1991 not mean a revolution, not freedom from totalitarian oppression, and even more so than the collapse of ideals, but merely an opportunity to rapidly accelerate their careers, pereprygnuv immediately after a few steps the old hierarchy . The inevitable has predicted another 20-s of last century LD Trotsky degeneration parthoznomenklatury occurred naturally exchange privileges to the property: Privileges are only half price if you can not leave their children a legacy. But the right will be separated from ownership. Not enough to be director of the Trust, you'll need to share. The victory of the bureaucracy in this critical area would have meant turning it into a new property class . That is why the events of 1991 became a polubarhatnoy, surprisingly mild social revolution in Russia.
      The disintegration of the Soviet system had reached its extreme point in the endless queues pozdnesovetskih been talking to support GKCHP, but beyond that it does not matter. It is there, the top, they Giroux besyatsya not our case, well and good that GKCHP, the order should be. Worth ispravnik behind their backs - is the order left people unattended - no order ispravnika must be returned. But this was a simple and affordable ideology was not enough to protect the socialist system and the USSR were, though not massive, but at least some notable performances. USSR sample of 1991 - not 1973, Chile, where in the two weeks surrounded by rebels, the defense kept the school warrant, burned the palace of La Moneda, Salvador Allende, in helmets and with automatic, and unknown thousands of Chileans protect the ideals to which you believe, defended to the end .
      In the USSR, there were not any military unit or single unit power structure, which would have complied with the formal oath of loyalty to the USSR, the officer or partrabotnika, to comply with the informal to the time the oath of loyalty to the CPSU, loyalty partbiletu poles with neat ink stamps, showed on time payments contributions. Contributions have long been limited, and all but die for the right to continue to pay no one wanted. At one-sixth of the land did not find any secretary raykoma, regional committee, kraykoma, reskoma CPSU, which would open the safe, laid out a long time in anticipation of this day he relying-up arms and going down the red flag with the same group of enthusiasts would take circular defense. Suppose that for a week, three days, six hours, it is not important, but the historical fact is a historical fact - did not anybody. Entuziastov not found, perhaps the first historical epoch came to an end one way - quietly. End, then - over, and whipping Obukha not pereshibesh.
      Whipping tried pereshibit head two years later, when it became clear that the West has no earthly paradise, capitalist economy is not a dairy kiselnymi from the river banks, as they are available sooner than anticipated real socialism. In 1993, things were much worse - resisted remaining stronghold skeleton of Soviet power, resisted the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation. The same White House on Krasnopresnenskaya embankment and in August 1991, and in October 1993, virtually the same MPs, but the content of events fundamentally different. In August 1991 the days of thousands of Muscovites came not merely to protect MPs or President Boris N. Yeltsin as the democratically elected leaders of Russia and even more so to protect them as individuals, though some of them have a known proportion charismatic. Defended the hope, which included not only the future of daily visits to hypermarkets, coffee on the terrace of European cafes, reading books, watching movies, shopping, that is, the consumption of the artifacts of culture, which is now consumed in Europe, now read, watch and wear. Defended hope never again in life not to go to the party and Komsomol meetings, demonstrations of workers, not to see every night on TV and face the next secretary general to the field. But this is only one, the least significant and the surface, and at the same time, the most rationalistic, lying on the surface of the motivation of people who came to the White House in August 1991.
      There was one more hidden, it is difficult to give away almost genetic motivation, which, by its Nacala and force as much surpassed the first. Yeah, right, and the possibility of daily visits to hypermarkets - are pleasant, but not to die for him, this is not the motivation. People standing on the Democratic side of the barricades, the motivation was. Understand it is possible, although it is not as good, if good at all. Recall A. Galić: And where roamed the area for kaery / and under the snow looked rotten roots, / to the land, no premieres, no pants podtyanuvshi knelt ... / Sing the same tube, as Sing, Sing about my Potmu, / Sing My brother, there, in the icy padi . Let us remember the millions tortured, shot, not born, through the prisons and concentration camps, so that only in the seven years (1934-1941) seized 19 840 000 people, about 7 000 000 shot. From lagernikov returned and made the rehabilitation of about 200 000 , and for seven years (1929-1936 he was the collectivization. In the village - SG) disappeared nearly five million families .
      Recall Kolyma Stories V. Shalamov, the same The last major battle Pugachova, when fleeing from the camp of ex-serviceman with a few trehlineykami gave their last battle nastigshim enkavedeshnikam. There are seventy years of Soviet power was then blowing, as in the Tambov province, and Siberia early 20's, it just disappeared from the eye, as in 60-70-ies of XX century, the civil war. Back in the 50 years of peasant strehami izb found trehlineyki design Mosina sample of 1886, which kept the peasants before the end of life with sincere hope of ever so use it you nachalnichki - for collectivization.
      For example, in 1957, a citizen involved in criminally responsible for anti-messages, saying in court that no need to defend me. Against you I will defend itself when I have to be weapons. I wrote such a letter and I will write. We are such a lot. We must unite for the common struggle ... . August 1991 - this was the last battle of Major Pugachev, the last battle of those who did not live, but I wanted to live up to dawn. This is very valuable, tanks here assistants weak, and will be shot, cut, to kill. But there is no will. Tired. End of an era.
      In 1993, a comparable effect on the motivation of regular defenders of the White House was not. Can protect the wall, the remainder are part of parliamentarians, it is possible to defend the USSR. We want back in the USSR, we had a wonderful era. Extraordinary longing for paradise lost, destroyed Reserve, our happy childhood, sausage on the twenty-two and three vodka sixty-two. Extraordinary longing for the lost due. Due died, and therefore is whether to wait for dawn and could therefore well desire the death of an enemy? For granted - it is possible for the sausage on the twenty-two - do not. And the journalists vice-president of Russia and General AV Rutskoi: Here's my machine, it is in the grease, do not shoot me, do not shoot ... As a result of the October events have been numerous casualties both among the participants, as well as random witnesses, that the very by themselves can not cause the deepest regret and sympathy. Yes, these developments could, under certain conditions, become a prelude to civil war, but, fortunately, have remained in history as the local fighting. And so it passed a fork in the historical choice of the 1993rd, spared, and this time the history of Russia.
      Considering the events of 1991 and 1993, it must be remembered that they are not involved so many citizens, the absolute minority of the population of the USSR. The vast majority of society has shown a rare indifference in relation to these events, believing that they did not relate to everyday life, personal life outlook, personal future. This passivity is not new in Russian history, as it was in October 1917, when the rages Petrograd, were fighting in Moscow, Russia and the rest continued to live more or less normal lives, at the beginning of the revolutionary events, few were willing to take a direct part in them on one side or the other. Politically active minority of the citizens of Russia has sent the country into a meeting with the regular version is accepting at this time the appearance of a single scientific, and therefore the correct teachings - Marxism-Leninism.
      The passivity of the bulk of the people and the active minority, selected in both cases for all, as in 1917, and in 1991 - it is common that brings together these seemingly so different processes. The fundamental difference between them lies primarily in the fact that in 1917 people went to meet the new version should seek over time to embrace the whole world. In 1922 the MV Frunze wrote that by the progress of the historical process of revolutionary working class will be forced to move to the attack, when this has created favorable conditions, while the first phase of the global spread of Soviet power and the construction of the boards of the World to capture a European - is the boundary of the front of the nearest turn defines the limits of all the mainland Old World. In 1991, there was a reverse process of due care, care in a local private life, with a priority of simple human joys and cares.
      For following the August 1991, thirteen years, much has changed, and changed the culture and society. Difficulties and probuksovyvanie democratic reforms that we have seen all the recent years, does not negate the fundamental differences between pozdnesovetskoy and the post-Soviet reality. The main change is a radical shift in people's mentality, due to death should, which for centuries was a system-beginning in the Russian cultural tsivilizitsatsionnom space.
      For pozdnesovetskoy era were characterized by cynicism, hypocrisy, total falsehood, almost pathetic form of glorification of power, personified in the next Secretary-General of the CPSU Central Committee. Authorities at that time committed itself to a rather complicated transition from the region due to the existing, losing on the road last raid sacral. Economically, the material terms of the empire, increasingly relied on exports of commodities, the model of growth based on oil. In spiritual terms the Soviet empire period of decline was based on the inertia should be no longer dovlelo over all and all, but still reminiscent of the right order of things, that the a priori priority, and that obviously the local, private, in addition. In 1991, together with the Soviet ideology collapsed and proper. But this drop was not one-not quite final, we stayed with him many subdiskursy.
      The main is that during the 90 years lost due to the universal nature, which seriously altered the socio-cultural situation in Russia. Still it subdiskursy remained suspended perception of authority, the state has not been able to (at best, not enough time) to become more or less full-fledged social institution. The remaining elements should be primarily inertial in nature, modern attempts to revive it in the old imperial scope and vseproniknovenii may be in the very successful for the initiators of this process, if only lead to its imitation, which a priori can not be effective. You can not try and not put the country on a regular scientific Experience, which is emerging as a reduced-authoritarian socialist police remake science experiment, carried out under the leadership of Lenin, who has been characterized Russian bigot naukoveriya.
      Let's go back to our recent history. In pozdnesovetskie time should be subjected to a deep internal erosion, inversion principle prevailing in the Russian mentality, and it controls a wide range of smysloobrazovatelnyh channels, and demonstrated against him. In an era pozdnesovetskuyu should be progressively devalued, losing the depth and thoroughness of semantic oposredovany, which in the years 1917-1953 served as a communist ideology. In the 60 th years of the twentieth century in the minds of Soviet man postulates that ideology is not only lost the value imperative, but also gradually ceased taken seriously: No one is shouting to horse! / Noblemen cleared by the root. / Pugaci Neither you nor Stenki. / Winter is taken, according to bike. / Dzhugashvili stored in cans. / Silent gun at forecastle. / In my head - only money .
      Due gradually destroyed from the inside through a multilevel and multidimensional effects of the liberal Western civilization. In 60 years at the most youthful and educated society formed a new-old mifologema, states that there is a paradise, but not in heaven, but on the other side of the Iron Curtain, there in the West. Over time, this mifologema strengthened, despite the official explanation of the imperial ideology, despite the visual range, which demonstrated the Soviet television. Here and slums, and strikes, and high levels of crime, unemployment, lack of confidence in the future. Soviet propaganda drew West does not like heaven, but as the earthly embodiment of hell, nearly a twelfth of its range. Society is becoming more and more accustomed to transfer all ideologically colored commentary authority with accuracy up to the contrary. If propaganda argues that it - hell, is there - paradise, there is a crown of stories - a society of consumption. In the years of perestroika, the mifologema was the mental basis of all ideological innovation of that time: New Thinking, universal values, a market economy.
      Today, veterans of the democratic movement with a nostalgic recall of hundreds of thousands of people who go to rallies, but now rallies run hundreds or even dozens of them. I recall the words of Robespierre: Republic died robbers triumphs. But the thing that has changed the era, due died, people moved away from public expressions of political activism, he returned to his personal, private victories and sorrows, was making money, traveling the world to live for themselves and their loved ones. Another part of these people were simply not prepared to enter into civil society of a liberal type. They are in full compliance with the laws of mythological logic waiting for the fall of the Soviet empire of auto paradise. Once able to eliminate the enemy, it is just paradise, and it will be possible to enter into friendly series golden city, - those shared illusions and much of the liberal-minded intellectuals. Just quickly found out that heaven is actually not, but there is stiff competition, there is no paradise in the West, and what not, can not be imported to Russia - then expressed through their Soviet / anti oposredovaniya Due finally collapsed.
      Today, continued existence of the inertia subdiskursov must, but its core component, which is an eschatological idea, finally died, which we hope with all possible sincerity. Ideological stamp - the achievement of an eschatological end of history - a bright future (communism) - at the time of the collapse of the Soviet Union was totally devalued. But the irony of the history of mass death due deprived Soviet person, not only the chief metaphysical guide, but also determines the everyday life of conventional system.
      In the public consciousness dominated by the conviction that the Soviet Union under the rule of the Communists may have existed for years, hundreds of years, the Soviet people to make plans for the future, believing it is a stable and predictable. Nadezhda Mandelstam in 1975 in response to the famous assertion A. Amalrika observed: I heard you wrote that the regime did not survive until 1984. Crap! It will survive another thousand years! . Submissions on the inviolability of the geopolitical and social world serve streamline today's life and relate it to guide the future, to build a meaningful and filled a continuous chain of being. Through proper Soviet man was easier to live, because he always knows how to treat the primacy of matter and the cover jacket, the libertarian and white verses to mathematical abstraction and abstract sculpture, to issues of gender and color of the ceiling, the illusion of conscience and taste sauce . Despite a rather critical attitude to the official ideological construct, a massive Soviet people still benefit from them some positive content provider psychotherapeutic effect and strengthen the process of everyday life, the very fact of its existence, gave him some existential rootedness.
      Naturally, the existence of due course of time became more and more conditional, remember how in the late Soviet period, previously marginal types of the world, artistic practices, economic activities are gradually acquired ambivalent status. There still remained outside the great tradition, great style of the era, often attacks the legal field, they at the same time receiving justification, through the recognition of certain subcultures. Gradually eroded the high style, a great tradition of the Soviet era: Initially, this shocking society breakthrough new content in the behavior, reasoning, etc. occurs in a narrow environment, in certain groups are perceived in relation to culture in general kontrkulturami. If the traditional society of inertia persisted and did not experienced a situation of transition, the behavior of these individuals continued to be judged as deviant .
      Marginal, individualistic, beyond the boundaries of the rules, innovative styles of world and life in the subsequent historical era implemented hidden opportunities, showed the ability to achieve the status of reference - revive the spirit of Russian capitalism in Russia is not out of the Protestant ethic (in which Russia was not, there is no likely will not), but from the artistic consciousness .
      By the 80 th years of XX century has changed considerably, and the social composition of the Soviet / Russian society has increased the number of intellectuals and citizens in the second-third generation. During the dying Soviet empire, urban society, and soootvetstvenno, urban culture have been able to develop on a massive scale in university towns millionnikah, but primarily in the major imperial centers - Moscow and Leningrad. That fact greatly accelerated the collapse of the Soviet Union because of its ideology, system and management practices were calculated on a more primitive and less educated social environment. By an irony of history, as the massive Soviet people became more educated and developed multi-faceted, as soon as he got some apartments, private libraries and radio - the Soviet Union ceased to meet the needs of his life.
      The destruction of the Soviet civilization - this time, the collapse of the old and the birth of a new order has not yet been structured despite everything, to get the status of the norm. In the post-Soviet period, there was tension between the possibilities of institutional adaptation, value-regulatory systems and the explosion of social and cultural dynamics, the creative potential of chaos, creating new meanings, values and behaviors. During the acceleration of modernization processes society is confronted with the progressive social anomie, devaluation of social norms and procedural terms, nomination of new individual and group goals and requirements.
      Lost their conventional nature of socio-cultural space filled with whimsical interplay of real and chimerical possibilities, easy money, fragile, fluid social roles (example a social role of the entrepreneur, banker, broker). The question of the appropriateness of the actor alleged role in the game was decided on the highest rates of life. The feeling of a phantom, the volatility of life led to a sharp desire to live today, Tomorrow acquired taste marginality ( there is only a moment between the past and future, it is called life). A divergence of value-normative system, when none of its elements could not claim to be universal normativity. The processes of deconstruction of the Soviet institutional space, the transition to new institutions, norms, values and life practices rather painful: In a society where the institutions collapsed, immediately declares himself an atomic aggressiveness, becoming a war of all against all .
      Due to an integrated society for centuries and gave the Russian and later Soviet person experience of belonging to a social whole. Death should become a serious dezintegriruyuschim social and cultural factors, has caused shock existential alienation, which in Russia took a protracted nature. Natural in this situation, the process of internal stratification and fragmentation of society it is often perceived as something negative, rather causing chaos and destruction. Part of our fellow citizens are trying to regain the lost unity by resorting to the old / new ideological illusion, a kind of simulyakram must, but this is only the last rearguard battles.
      Period 1990 - 1993's was a revolutionary time, the time of radical acceleration of the historical and sociocultural dynamics. There have been significant shifts in the value-regulatory system of the Russian society. The state is no longer able to perform its traditional role paternalisticheskuyu: Among the main reasons has shifted, it was a massive disappointment in the ability of state paternalism, a sense of inconsistencies occurring due.
      Freedom comes Nagaya, / thrown on the heart of flowers. / And we, with her in the leg shagaya / talking to the sky to you ... / Let the maidens sing at the windows, / International songs about ancient hikes, / A loyalist sun / autocratic people , - in XX century Russia lived in conditions of freedom, turns into anarchy, in the interval of February - the October Revolution. The Second Coming of freedom has lasted for more than a decade, despite the emerging renaissance in recent years, socio-cultural normativity. In the 90 years the state has waived claims to possess the monopoly of legal knowledge about the world and man. The man was left alone with himself, his private concerns, the age cycle, professional self-realization, that is, in essence, a kind of barrier has disappeared, separates, protects against reality, distracting from the existential life. Diversion from the horror of life served as swift emigration and life in the Soviet Union, membership in the CPSU and dissidence, reading art trilogy LI Brezhnev and samizdat - the series could continue for a long time. Effects and inactive in the given situation is a matter of purely private, are perceived as an act that has not a private but a public, social importance. How many opportunities to escape from itself, the collective empathy, complicity, what is the magnitude and the abundance of genres, from drama to farce, played for Social Performance.
      With the disappearance of the Soviet order, for more than seventy years expressing Due to the state has become quite difficult to maintain the basic form of order in general. Russia entered the area of limiting freedoms where deconstruction of external control over the person only partially offset by increased internal locus of control, radikalizuetsya social and cultural chaos, a general weakening of the normative, the reduction of capacity of government, coupled with the weakness of the emerging civil society. Social and cultural space of the country during this period proved penetrated raznovektornymi, chaotic impulses, but it is in transitional periods in culture and society was called the maximum degree of freedom for innovation, competitive selection, the struggle for the future, for the opportunity to move the individual elements of innovation in conventional modality. In a further innovation occurs stereotyping, which combine some continuity with regard to socio-cultural traditions with the instrumental efficiency in the new stage of historical and sociocultural dynamics.
      A part of our fellow post-Soviet transformation caused shock, widespread social anomy, although such a development should have been expected initially. A part of society, the losers from the changes in the last period, has considerable negative energy directed against post-Soviet reforms, perceived as a form of destructive development that destroys the legitimate within the framework of national socio-cultural traditions of value-regulatory system of the Russian society.
      Now, to say it more clearly, a few words about our common ancestry intelligentskoy. Since even with modernization transformation of Peter I, the new Europeanized society in Russia created a state power, deriving from European culture and education in society is that it could serve to achieve their own goals. Community selectively absorb those European in origin values, which are selected for the power, so lessons ... nakrepko values are linked in the public consciousness with the power. This umbilical cord that connects the Russian educated society with an imperial power, eased only in the second half of the XIX century, but the pre-revolutionary intelligentsia had been after the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 destroyed a part, but part was in exile. Most of the new Soviet intelligentsia, social originating from peasants and workers, was nakrepko knitted with imperial power. It is no longer the Soviet Union prison of peoples and the progress of the world's first State of workers and peasants - is its success.
      How strong was this adhesion, evident in the post-Soviet period of our history, when most intellectuals mourned the Soviet Union since the mid-90's all over dreyfuya towards the left flank of the political spectrum. It turned out that the Soviet intelligentsia has worked all his life in imperial government. And when this state was not, sad it turned out that the new conditions for the country every person is obliged to improve their ability to be retained and expanded its portfolio of projects (plans). If anyone, for any reason unable to do so, he quickly marginalized and excluded from social relationships, moving in a Stratu, which reduces the ability of perception of new projects and proposals . When not become the Soviet imperial state, the post-Soviet intellectual was not only not guaranteed source of material existence, but lost his own sense of significance, being involved in a great building, and other challenges era.
      It turned out that it is necessary to make money, you should leave kurilok Research Institute of kulmanov design bureau, it is necessary to offer the public only such intellectual and material products, which it agreed to buy. Is not this drama for a Russian intellectual, is not it does not want all this dirt and melteshni, better vozopit to power: give the order for a new ideology, the national idea, though some order, only the spare, spare us from having to make money themselves, we good, we will not talk bad about you in the kitchens, and even more so in the media. So - long live the Communist Party and / or neoimperskaya power, which one can prigolubit and regret, to give a piece of daily bread, and half have their own sense of importance. Part of the post-Soviet intelligentsia alchet new / old order, and this order are combined with the words at any cost. Accordingly, such an arrangement might only strong hand, rigid, unyielding leader . But if it truly something to ask - you can apply for, and already seems to have received.
      Not only have part of the intelligentsia, but also in the wider part of Russian society, there was sustained dichotomy, a choice between freedom, redutsiruemoy to anarchy, and security can be perceived as an authoritarian order. The reaction is always and everywhere is the inevitable consequence of the appearance on the stage of extreme elements, a general historical law. The question is: what is the reaction and how does it work? Vosstanovlyaet Is it only what you need, based on the healthy and moderate forces of society, or she, in turn, run to extremes, and thus raises new variations? (Emphasis added - SG .
      In the early 90-ies many of the country and outside it seemed that here, a little more, and Russia will become a liberal European state. And that is when civil society was ready to defend the government, felt, perhaps for the first time in his entire life to the internal commitment to it. That was in August 1991 because it was in October, the 1993rd, when the citizens came to the building Mossovet and were ready to defend the Kremlin, Russia to defend its power. This is a wonderful feeling that the power of its own, lasted long, since about August 1991 till the end of the first term of President Boris N. Yeltsin. Then there were the events in former Yugoslavia, the Russian paratroopers shot in Pristina, care, Minister for Foreign Affairs A. Kozyrev.
      Authorities once again flirt with Russian imperialism, imperial perekrashivalas in tone, a narrow rift between those who believed that power and its power is gradually turning itself into an abyss. But the power of speaking our language, could not quite forgive, but try to understand, even in August 1998. Authorities, who did not want to talk to society in the dialogue, monologues preferring to remain poluezopovom language Russian imperialism, trimmed media and launched a creeping nationalization - is as alien to civil society, as well as power Marcial, step ground on its tripod battle, depicted in the novel G. Wells Invasion Marcial, it is another language, other values, more relevant to humans. And today, on the historical scene in Russia have remained, in accordance with due, two opposing forces: freedom nepugannoe generation, socialized in the free 90-s, and the ghost of a dead empire - prostershiysya over his executor - power.
      And no need to deceive ourselves in her presence was not even slender ranks of the conditional rights in glasses and a stylish tie, with the same good intellect and high professional qualities. Any system characterized by the inner self, in an effort to uniformity, it rejects the course of time from all the alien, remember how sincere pleasure after the arrest of M. Tukhachevskogo his recent colleagues tread a violin, which is so fond of red commander. Ah, who knows if it was at least accordion, then maybe everything would cost, and with it, and MN Tukhachevskogo altogether. Reference to representatives of the animal physiological level feel, who to and who is a stranger, and it can not hide, no escape, as long as you want, you can murder the Russian language as it was in the Soviet period in the higher echelons of power, do three or four - Five errors in the words agricultural intensification, - did not help.
      There is an internal logic of development, which is very difficult to break, when they say A, followed by B - more music, and so before the end of the alphabet. It can not be a little pregnant, so you can not save the elements of democracy itself in the controlled construct. The logic of feudal-imperial system requires a resurrection of the proper and phased transfer of all the discussions with the public in the language of special services and army special forces. Passing on such a language dialogue with the power to the society known loser, because civilians are able to learn and teach and treat children and adults to build homes, operate businesses, write books and articles, but obviously not educated and do not know how though as - then confront GRU special forces. For society dialogue in such a field damaging, as only a last, desperate resort, remember the airport Zvartnots Armenia, Vilnius TV and many other points of dialogue with the authorities and society MS Gorbachev. To power this kind of dialogue can seem quite acceptable, the power on its side, but how stable would be set up through a series of successful discussions of this kind of political structure - the question at least open.
      But back to our not-too-distant Soviet past. The Soviet Empire Classic (the Stalin period) was a country where feudalism / kvazifeodalizm evolved gradually acquiring more advanced forms. In this sense, the CPSU was really avant-garde of Soviet society, as embodied the highest form of feudal / kvazifeodalnoy self. Trying to establish and maintain control over all spheres of life, the CPSU perekovyvala, re-bought it a legacy of Russian pre-human, it vpisyvaya hierarchical feudal / kvazifeodalnogo on the grounds of their society. CPSU tried to its members and structures, and subsequently distributed to all company relationships and institutions that existed in Europe in the Middle Ages. All the more developed and has become a multi-system vassaliteta, form the internal codes of behavior and corporate morality, birth right, evolved form of feudal rents originate form of harmonization of clan and national values, etc. The principal in this process was a progressive decrease from 1953, the proportion of state of slavery, upon which stood for centuries imperial state.
      Sami feudal-serfdom institution in a large part of the transition period experienced 90 years of the last century, in particular, liberals, reformers, at one time were in power, in fact, decided not to cancel the propiska, renamed it the Institute for recording and maintaining virtually the same amount of restriction . If we consider the propiska as a Non-functional reversion Soviet era, it is not only formal but also the abolition of the content would be rather a matter of time. But the institute is one of the key forms of population control by the authorities, it helps to maintain the feudal order.
      The most active retaliatory capabilities Institute propiska used power in the Soviet period of our history. Part of this practice were the expulsion of Moscow on 101-th kilometer, and in April 1968, shortly after the Ginzburg-Galanskova, of the CPSU Central Committee proposed changes to the law on registration to the city council ... without the imposition of an administrative penalty to cancel the registration of persons engaged antisocial activity, allowing slanderous fabrications inciting antisocial elements to politically harmful activity, leading himself provocatively towards the authorities ... Removal of persons referred to in this ordinance shall be made within 24 hours from the time the decision to revoke propiska .
      Another very important, continuing to this day is to preserve the feudal institution of universal military conscription. In terms of military expediency, the preservation of this institution not only need, but also harmful. Compete with highly professional armed forces of developed nations such modernize the army, it is extremely difficult. The point is that the possession of modern methods of warfare and professional use of sophisticated weapons systems requires no less professional than the work in the high-tech civilian industries. The process of quality training for a military specialist to simply override the statutory time period of military service by conscription. Obviously, in this case, the decision actually quite peripherally military tasks, the main meaning of preservation of universal military service was the mass socialization of the male population of the country, perekovke dogosudarstvennogo natural rights.
      In the army at the call, but still on a contract basis, largely account for less-educated and socially successful, young people from poor to adapt to the new country to market economy segments of the population. The level of income in the family, physical and mental health of conscripts, recruited for military service, much lower than their peers who remained on citizen. Some of them can not read and write, do not even have primary education, and the army in their lives - the first state institution to which they face close. However, some recruits have been exposed to the state through its prison system. People of a more successful social strata have great potential for legal or not quite legal care to military service.
      The Army today is probably the main social institution built man-screws in the feudal hierarchy, where he develops two basic behavioral scenarios: first, a subordinate, then the chief. According to its army of socialization comes occasionally to monstrously hypertrophied forms, including the balancing of rights on the brink of life and death, severe methods to adapt to the rules of the game system. When the 60-ies of XX century began the long process of devaluation should, and with it the erosion of Soviet civilization, the army becomes the initiation of each subsequent decade of increasingly stringent and almost unbearable.
      By changing the rules in the army environment, you can trace the process of devaluation due. Even in the 50 th of the last century such a thing as bullying in the army almost was not. Further, it is gaining more and more force and magnitude, transformed by the end of the Soviet - the beginning of the post-Soviet period of our history in a pure form of criminal, the two social institutions - the army and prison - the maximum in unison. These social institutions have a meaningful, purposeful coincidence, since they both serve the least socialized socialization, most dogosudarstvennyh public sectors. Thus, the absolute anti-marginal elements, rejecting a Soviet symbols, and power in general, said VK Kozlov on a number of participants anti speeches 50 - 60-ies of XX century: If you were in their cries, and utterances ideology, the ideology primarily anti - with the same passion, they rejected the principles and attributes of any authority .
      This high status of this form of socialization is based on a feudal basis, in the State of historical protagonist empire of Western civilization, these forms of socialization are far less important and carried out in a much more humane ways. The main role in the socialization of the education system plays up to prepare for the state by hundreds of thousands of art critics, who obviously can not be used in the specialty, but whose presence in a society sharply raises its human quality. Returning to the realities of our lives, we draw attention to another important point: the annual compulsory recruitment of young men, some of whom die as a result of hazing, injuries, etc., reminds both archaic institution of human sacrifices, and the feudal quitrent which society pays the authorities.
      The drop in power KPSS does not mean the fall of the feudal order on the entire front line, but it meant the depletion of the source. Supporting frame feudal organization was kept hidden, poluskrytyh and substituted forms of the partial destruction of society was seen as the onset of chaos, though the present chaos, comparable with the civilizational scrapping 1917 - 1921 years in Russia was not. Intellectuals shocked, first and foremost, the fact that the main actor in the drama entitled Death due do not become a liberal intellectual, as it could be assumed to pozdnesovetskuyu era, and post Nomad - nomad, barbarian.
      In the early 90-ies of the XX century, this is not a very nice social type feel true master of life. It is perhaps appropriate to recall the description of A. Izgoevym of society during the Civil War in Russia, where we see a striking coincidence with the post-Soviet period of our history: Never in the community social ties were not so weak, so nadorvany as during the official kingdom socialism. Person to a wolf - this is the main motto of these terrible days . Pagan desire for the will as anarchy will not repressed by any law, so long inhibitions feudal order should finally spilled out. However, the most horrifying scenarios, including civil war, the violent disintegration of Russia, a large-scale riot gangs - has not taken place. Anyone seriously pent Nomad for the years of Soviet power, has had enough okulturitsya, so as not to destroy the very foundations of civilized existence: it has already proved capable of living on concepts.
      The most viable and visible form of social self remains essentially feudal, transformed from the macrostructure of imperial society to a large conglomerate of local clan entities. We still are dealing today with the old and inefficient imperial institutions, but as a crucial bearing structure of social order are the local criminal-bureaucratic clans. Features of the post-Soviet period of our lives is that it is this self-structures had to fill a lacuna formed by the fall of the Soviet empire. Our society has long been habituated to live in the informal rules of conduct in the modern Russian language labeled concepts, without any hesitation took this option is a natural, poluanarhicheskogo kvazifeodalizma.
      Nevertheless, despite the fact that not everything turned out well, as seen from the 80's, we see 90 of the last century as a period of liberal modernization. During this period the country is literally swept the liberal flow of innovations to its original contents, almost the first time in our history have been lifted almost all censorship restrictions on the dissemination of information, except, of course, a part related to the military field. Inokulturnye innovations freely compete with the elements of play in the national socio-cultural tradition, almost the first time in this sensitive area are addressed natural selection, selection according to the degree of efficiency and competitiveness.
      In the realities of our daily lives, many things have changed, but sociologists, political scientists and economists are somewhat hurried, proclaiming Russia the rule of law with a market economy and the necessary attributes of a liberal society. The transition of this magnitude, the more aggravated deconstruction must, can not meet the ten or fifteen years, remember that Western Europe, for this transition took centuries. Post-Soviet period, and both managed to fit in very much, yet we managed to avoid the worst possible scenario for our future, and it is largely thanks modernization phase of the Soviet period.
      Notice one very important part of our discourse in fact: nineties were a period when the rate dictated commodity exporters and importers of consumer goods. There is a new sector of the elite. Far from the MIC in its objectives and interests, he is not out of ideological motives, not to encourage free trade in foreign and domestic policy of union with the West - its strategic business partner. He was not turned away from pacifism from the Army and the military industry. Equally naturally, he is not eager creation and its civilian industry . It has allowed to build an innovative segment, presented by new technologies, standards, values, institutions within the framework of our socio-cultural system.
      Number in one form or another, lived or simply taken note of innovation has been so much that it suggests the formation of a liberal alternative system to analyze its ability (or inability) under favorable circumstances and the availability of historical time to take a dominant position, to change the imperial-feudal system . But the fundamental question of whether the liberal innovations of the last fifteen years qualitative transformation of society or to be assimilated by the usual inversion scheme imperial model and replaced the regular imperial modernization, still no answer.
      Today, however, more and more clearly visible the contours of the future of the post-space, the formation of which is increasingly determined by the logic of Thermidor, as in the past few years, clearly defined model of the imperial temptation of modernization, development of kvaziimperskomu road, which, of course, requires a a certain ideology. This path of development is closer to the authorities, relatives, instinctively, as it reproduces itself, acquire semantics of new / old ideological oposredovany. A. White described the theater searches in the context of a similar situation in Russia after the completion of Russian-Japanese war and the first Russian revolution, the definition goes beyond the thematic scope of plays in the poetic form of presenting the underlying features of modern Russian social and cultural space: In the context of the collapse of the observed currently in Russia, the only thing able to achieve - is viscous mixture of socialism with individualism, the game of synesthesia, until aromatic effects and kozlovaka, barbaric lewd dancing at the broken remains of civilization .
      When approaching the conventional to the traditionalists as order become a purely decorative nature of the institutions of representative democracy is broken system of checks and balances, power everything begins to focus more clearly in the hands of one person, clan, party leadership. At this stage, the power elite need ideology, accept the majority society with a physical situation, allowing sublimate their own interests in energy, which for various reasons can not be used by man for self-realization in the horizontal plane of material existence.
      In terms of formal logic, today it is difficult to determine what is happening in the country, modernization or renovation? Staying within the traditional understanding of modernization, the answer to this question is impossible. Once again, talk about the mysteries of Russian mentality, at least, not productive, because it is unique, with its own specificity and is the mentality of other peoples. We believe that from the standpoint of the imperial model of modernization, everything that happens has a certain internal logic. In the last three or four years is happening externally chaotic, but internally it is organized by the process of drawing technologies, relationships, fragments of a liberal civilization modern, those components that can be used to restore and strengthen the system of imperial reason. So it was in 1917, when the empire was updated with the help of fashion then the western socio-economic theory, adapted Bolsheviks to address their own problems.
      Whether our next period of modernization, when the empire was the dominant element, as a liberal, and only an additional compensatory, a byproduct of its imperial phase? The answer yes literally worn into the air, new arguments in his proof almost every day there are from various areas of society. Nevertheless, we believe that talking about the long and the dominant phase of imperial modernization is not entirely correct for a number of circumstances: Bureaucracy and the class have all but the first time in Russian history is dense sroslis penetrated into each other. Large owners acquired unprecedented political influence, and big operators - fast capital. This will smooth over the differences between phases and to accelerate their rotation . Phase gosbyurokratii celebrations, to which the author is largely content coincides with the imperial phase of modernization, diluted in this case, fusion power and business blurring gosudarstvennicheskih ideologies, it is largely derived and the ambivalent nature of contemporary modernization processes.
      Changes to the deepest level, suggest that Russia has a historic opportunity to consolidate neimperskoe as a nation state. Empires do not last forever, for the birth to childhood, adolescence, adolescence, adulthood and finally old age, dryahlenie, weakness and death, that is changing the basic reason souiokulturnoy system. We believe that in the near and medium term, the amplitude of oscillations between the imperial and liberal models of modernization will be reduced, since extinct eschatological idea has no domestic sources for itself. Ideokratichesky project ended, almost no one else believes in the possibility of mystical breakthrough in paradise and do not intend to sacrifice the tangible earthly values for message and eschatological megaprojects.
      At the same time, the vast majority of our citizens using pre-economic adjustment policies, which at best can provide only the minimum necessary conditions for biological survival. Saving some escapism with respect to the horizontal plane of existence in the absence of pronounced eschatological ideas, which could well compensate for the failures and frustration in the earthly life, it weakens the very motivation for the continuation of life. Thus, the scientists believe that the cause of early death is the lack of visible development prospects of the individual. Aimlessness existence leads to very low values of life and lack of subconscious desire it to continue . In an article written based on sociological studies conducted in Russia within the framework of the UN Development Program in 2002 - 2003 years, notes that the poorest Russian regions, including Pskov and Ivanovo region, as well as the Jewish Autonomous Oblast and the Republic of Tuva, a global rating and is comparable to Vietnam and some African countries . In a sense, is a kind of vicious circle, where the real poverty region pushes people to use pre-primitive survival strategies, and mental disposition to the application of these policies exacerbated poverty and territory.
      If the ideals in Russia simply replaced interests, as happened initially in the Western and then Eastern Europe, it would not be final, and systemic transformation of the cultural and civilizational qualities. But strengthening the sector interests in mentality enough to achieve a certain level deideologizatsii, but not the formation of a structured system of society bourgeois-liberal type. In our historical and socio-cultural inheritance in its formation must be much greater historical time than the last fifteen years of our history. Implementation of the private interest was still continuing despite the inertia of a feudal-ideokraticheskoy paradigm. The trends are quite heterogeneous, the various public opinion polls give quite contradictory picture, including evidence of the revitalization process of replacing the ideal interests. Thus, in the sociological research carried out within the framework of Tomsk Initiative it turns out that the destruction of the traditional mind (and consequently the destruction must - SG) is irreversible, and traditional values are present, primarily, only Parade level .
      In the post-Soviet country is facing a test of the world. Lost the status of the imperative of mobilizing ideology vitality of state and society to be protected from external threats, to do in the Soviet period, dominant position in the hierarchy of values. The test is compounded by the world test deideologizatsiey, denial of global projects, changing the direction of the vector of public consciousness of the Messianic projects and ideologies in the private, local spheres of human existence. After zaideologizirovannoy life in the USSR is an unusual condition. In power, the question arises, on what grounds can be maintained at least a minimum level of integration of society in conditions of relative freedom, the autonomy of the individual, the level of heterogeneity of values, norms, life strategies.
      Economic, political and cultural elite of the country as a possible solution to consider the construction of an integrated national ideology, in its various versions of applications, typically to their imperial prototypes. Characteristically, the ideology postimperskoy era is retrospective, and therefore expressed decadent and simulation character. All the talk about the revival of Russia and no one spoke on the construction of the new Russia. What is Russia going to revive, Moscow Rus, Peter, Nikolayev, Soviet? GP Fedotov said in this regard that one sees Russia in a monastery, the other in the Horde of Genghis Khan, the third in St. Petersburg last Romanovs. You need to be afraid of cheap slogans and narrow perspectives. Russia, however, and this, and more .
      In addition, in real history could not restore anything, have only more or less successful osovremenennye variations on the same topic, this shows us come down to historical experience. Let us remember the words of a well-known theorist of conservative revolution, Carl Schmitt: Do not Robespierre, but Metternich broke monarshyu crown. There is only self, suicide. Restoration - is a specific method of destruction and devastation restavriruemogo. Why? Because it is self-destruction. So, no restorations! Neither church nor state, neither the monarchy nor democracy, neither throne nor altar, nor the old forms of liberty, nor the old forms of obligation and power . Myth dominant, it does not compete with reality, according to his logic, you can restore anything, you can even go back to the paganism of ancient Russia, the mass consciousness believes all this is quite possible. Like Byzantium, Russia is trying to draw strength from his own past, endlessly returning to its mifologizirovannoy and fetish stories and ideologies, but flowering pozavcherashnih ideologies have the correct sign of the beginning of the agony yesterday's ideas. This explains their delusional, delirious nature ... trying Galvanization ideologies always only convicts of their final mertvost . A modern, today's Russia is not in any meaningful historical time for the continuation of policy uncertainty and avoid the historical choice of continuing ambivalent pull and push of the Western civilization modern.
      The death of empire, has exhausted its possibilities in virtually all spheres of social life, has not been accompanied by massive deconstruction of the imperial consciousness. The transition from imperial to postimperskoy form of Russian statehood, coupled with the need for sustainable development, involves the replacement of extensive life at an intensive strategy. The transition from the domination of the old system to an alternative system of liberal-type requires the transformation of Russian society underlying mentality, perhaps more complete assimilation of the experience of Euro-Atlantic civilization modern.
      The foundation of the empire can not be a large-scale military violence, nor can it be reconstituted and the inertia of fear of retaining power. Deaths due not raise ideological doctrines, as it is impossible to restore the imperial order, based on the depleted eschatological ideals. Attempting to imperial restoration based on the full use of the power structures in the context of widespread corruption, can not be sufficiently effective, although one can not fail to recognize that today, the one who has a gun, much more human than the one who has not. Throughout the 90-ies of the invisible, but decisive actions of the authorities and society, was an old slogan: we would prostoyat night, so the day lasted, historical time pressed in continuing this indefinitely.
      For such a world were, naturally, and very strong objective reasons as well, outstanding Russian economist E. Yasin led inflation figures in post-Soviet Russia: 1992 - 2660 per cent in 1993 - 930, 1994 ... - 320. In 1995 - 21 percent. It was a dramatic shift ... 1997 has shown 11 percent annual inflation . But in the next, in 1998, now is the time of default, more than three-fold increase in the dollar, destroying the leading commercial banks, untightening a new inflationary spiral. Hard to say whether it was even in modern Russian history, a period when people such as to avoid the formulation of long-term plans when the very future it would be a multivariate.
      Throughout the post-Soviet period, was living an illusion of the possibility of maintaining social stability, in principle, unattainable in the era of transition from one social, economic and political system to another. We have seen in this period to avoid a historical choice, buy a shine showcases western and western way of life in general and not to lose while the social gains of socialism, if possible, mitigate the severity of modernization processes. In the period after 1991 could have been achieved in moving towards assimilation of liberal values, since some of the elements shared by representatives of a politically active minority of Russian megapolises. But it was irretrievably lost, the trial of the CPSU did not become the second Nuremberg, dash under the totalitarian Soviet past was dotted, one leg here and another there, and indeed, nothing ochernyat our great history, the Soviet era, flight Yuri Gagarin, communism , which is the youth world, and fell to the different periods of Soviet-era youth, the Soviet people in general. Largely because of this mental-political circumstances and the liberal economic reforms beginning-mid 90-ies of the XX century, suffered from half to full of them lacked the political will, but most important was, if not exclusion, then, in any case, amounts to his failure to reform a large part of society.
      In Eastern Europe, the liberation from communism began earlier, it was a smooth process of political emancipation is largely coincided with the process of national liberation. But the main differentiating factor is the long-standing internal izzhivanie feudalism, the process in the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe by the end of 80-ies of the XX century has been virtually completed. There are, however, the Near East Europeans with the fact of us - our collective changes in consciousness. Anti, anti-Soviet revolution in Eastern Europe that took place at the turn of 80 - 90-ies of the XX century, have identified a pattern whereby the bitterness of confrontation between the old and the new dominant system disistemoy largely depend on the degree of rootedness in the community first. In other words, the confrontation was all the more fiercely and the blood, the greater was the country's so-called real socialism, as in Romania, and the less of that, it was socialism, as in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, - the lower the resistance, and how Consequently, Velvet shift in power.
      In Russia in 1991 due to exhausted, Communist ideology has lost the possibility of any significant impact on real life. But velvet nature of our revolution was, rather, mannoy heaven we did not have any union Solidarity, as in Poland or Prague (Moscow), the spring, as in Czechoslovakia, 1968, when only 7 (seven) people came out in Moscow on Red Square, having received for this act of courageous actions of the years the camps and exile. Then on the A. Galich sang: You can go to the square, dare to enter the area at the appointed hour, and for decades before him in a cycle of poems To Czech Republic, about the same, about saving the honor of the nation in 1940 -- year when, in the same column Wehrmacht consisted of Czechoslovakia, we find in M. Tsvetaeva: ... One officer. / Of lesochka - living style - / At громаду - yes with the revolver! .. / Incurred / Good news / What saved Czech honor! / So - Country / So do not put / means - war / But it was! .
      Seven people are critically low, the social revolution was not suffer more or less extensive segments of Soviet society, he was suffer the absolute minority, intellectual, physical force is not enough for full-liberal reforms. In many ways, precisely because they were so volatile, there is still the temptation of imperial restoration, it is not possible without the generation of a new eschatological ideology. History is unfolding not in itself, it makes people who did not have to carry out qualitative and effective transformation in post-Soviet Russia.
      Let us recall turned out to be prophetic words of Thomas Mann, whom he had completed it to the centennial anniversary of I. Goethe, in predrokovom for Germany 1932: Credit, which today still provides the history of bourgeois republic, this is truly a short-term loan, based on surviving another faith that democracy and really can do that though, if you believe their hypocrisy can make it to the authorities of rushing the enemies, namely ... transfer state and the economy in the new world . In our current circumstances, a loan entails the hope that the transition of Russia to the innovative, post-industrial economy that is able to use the intellectual ability of our education system and society as a whole.
      The weakness and fragility of liberal gains in the 90's last century was not stemmed from zlokoznennosti power. On the contrary, it is expected to organize citizens in all spheres of life. Russian power in the early 90-ies expected that the removal of the press socialist ideology and a sharp restriction of government intervention and control in various sectors of society will lead to a spontaneous explosion of activity cards. Authorities, in fact, count on the active enough educated residents of large cities, especially the Russian mega-cities of Moscow and St. Petersburg. It seems that creative, energetic, proactive, educated people a lot and they can organize their lives, but through economic and political activity and social life for the better, bring it into conformity with the standards adopted in most developed countries in Europe and North America. As we see now, those hopes were too optimistic, and high expectations, and revealed that almost all of revaluation.
      In politics people had to itself in the political parties, which could be greater or lesser degree of effectiveness to reflect the interests of those citizens. I regret to note that the real party-building in post-Soviet period of our history is not available. Inherited from the Soviet period, has remained the party of old power highlighted memories of the must - the Communist Party, and there is not yet full-fledged party, at best, their embryos - Yabloko and SPS, the prototypes of the parties, expressing a certain ideology. The remaining structure of education, serving in the role of parties, have a unique, non-classical nature. They are the product of intellectual creativity authorities, the authorities have not painted the emanation should the authorities, which can offer virtually any name, the party structure, party ideology. The succession of these parties of power we have seen in the parliamentary elections of the post-Soviet period. Without going into them in detail, naming consideration, we note only that the basis of a high electoral outcome is the effect of inertia due. Due died but is still inertia otozhestvlyat themselves with power, preferably as close as possible to the strong, then the individual, merging with it, feels itself strong. It can be assumed that as the inertial damping of lines due informative content of the party building will change towards a more classical and mass parties, but this requires a longer historical time.
      The inertia of the various trace subdiskursov must take even more evident in the power. For example, referring to the features of presidential power Yeltsin, I. Klyamkin notes that given the power of Russian tradition, it would be to talk about electoral autocracy ... I have proposed an expression only makes the current power in the national historical context and reflects the legacy of it, albeit in a weakened form, especially .
      In the post-Soviet years, weakening the social and cultural normativity increases of more natural, natural individuals who have no sublimate, as is increasingly the prohibitions set by culture, is less than the social motivation of scientific research, artistic creativity. The energy that would sublimate and used in the process of service due, the cost of the completeness of daily life, the personal self-fulfillment in the resulting infinite possibilities of the material and spiritual products offered by the modern world.
      In terms of post-Soviet Russia for the Russian culture of the new issues are relevant to the topic: Is it worth it Pskov Pushkin quitrent?, That is, whether High Culture authoritarian state power, censorship, iron curtain, serving proper? It seems to us that some simplification of the culture, localization of high-end segment is a suitable fee for the expansion of the rules, more freedom samoosuschestvleniya person for death should. The next stage of modernization associated with the acceleration of a long historical process of changing the Russian mentality. Radikalizuetsya process of replacing elements of mentality, genealogy dating back to the vertical measurable elements of the world caused by its horizontal dimension, involving zhizneosuschestvlenie here and now, in a clearly defined framework of terrestrial life, reconciliation with the middle, measure the cold formal pravoustanovleny, awareness of the impossibility, irrelevance Search recipes universal salvation peace and human death should. Evidence of this shift serve mass phantom pain, the depth of traumatic shock caused by the loss of something far more important than a higher level of material living conditions.
      II. System and disistema. Scenarios and Perspectives
      Despite the lack of rootedness liberal project in the Russian soil, the liberal trend is still in Russia have formed the basis for the formation of an alternative system. It was still weak, but still strong enough counterbalance to the dominant imperial tradition, smoothing the severity neoimperskih and authoritarian forms of the modern phase of the modernization / restoration.
      Processes, clearly manifested in the post-Soviet period, suggest a weakening feudal imperial system and the active formation of an alternative liberal system. The main factor contributing to this porotsessu is death due and, therefore, the reorientation of public consciousness with the ideals of the interests of promoting change in the internal balance between the imperial and liberal elements of modernization processes. During the 90-ies of the XX century, we have seen a trend towards an increased share of the liberal element in the relative decline in the proportion of components of imperial modernization processes. But even in this situation, we must recognize that the imperialism of which still dominate, considerably strengthened in the most recent years.
      Nevertheless, important emerging in the 90-th years of last century, a trend that can at least bring a liberal disistemu to parity with the imperial-feudal system, and in particularly favorable historical conditions which may occur in the medium term, make it a dominant system . We hold the firm belief that all attempts to revive, to make a more competitive and efficient feudal imperial system can only lead to considerable time duration of the inevitable agony. The second time successfully repeat the bloody Bolshevik revolution kulbit, pour the old / new imperial content in new forms - not possible. At this time - the hand is short and that is the policy of imperial restoration has serious internal and more serious external constraints. Within these outer limits are set mostly in the areas of the world economy and geopolitics.
      Now from the general characteristics of the ratio of imperial-feudal system and the emerging liberal disistemy proceed to analyze their expression in the adaptation of our fellow citizens to the new conditions of life in post-Soviet Russia. Let us consider the most pressing issues facing all of us to adapt to its two basic forms. The first group of pre-adaptation strategies is an organic product of feudal-imperial system.
      It was assumed that in the post-Soviet modernization processes in the economy - the processes of self-expressions of personal activism - should create a competitive market, many Russian and Western economists, the current politicians thought that the total withdrawal of government regulation would cause a significant wave of private initiative, entrepreneurship, the creation of a large number of new capitalist enterprises. Thus, A. Aslund, an expert on the socialist bloc countries, consult the Government of a number of CIS countries in the 90-ies of XX century, at the beginning of the reforms saying that in Russia have millions of businesses already in the first year of free enterprise and free prices. Practice has shown that these hopes were overly optimistic, since the potential of Russia's capitalist society has been greatly overstated, and most significantly with respect to his slave parts.
      A corollary conducted during the Soviet and partly pre-Soviet period of our history, public policy was the creation of sustainable complex psychological disbelief in our own forces in general and in economic capacity among other things, life with a permanent chill on the state of the population in Russia and, above all, the representatives of the former Soviet intellectuals . In the early post-Soviet reforms, a significant portion of Russian society is still waiting for the economic support of preferences by the state, according to various parameters has not been able to play the role of independent economic entity.
      Error in estimates of A. Aslund, and many other politicians and economists were due to the fact long ago noted Russian economist and theologians SN Bulgakov: Man is, of course, not the economic machine driven by a spring of economic self-interest and acting with the inexorable straightforwardness and faultless accuracy, but the specific type of spirit with all the complexity and diversity of psychological motivation. Religion, a dominant worldview puts a certain stamp and economic man. In the human heart is set inside the link between religion and economic activity . Let us remember the surprise of Tolstoy, who said that I have long been amazed that surprising, especially-established in Western Europe, the view that the work is something like virtues. As part of this tratsionalistskoy value-regulatory system, labor is not a virtue, a man should not seek wealth, since - wealth gain - in hell to be, but a great ideokraticheskomu the project in its religious or secular forms.
      In his memoirs, S. Witte recalled the atmosphere was typical of Russian educated society in the 70-ies of XIX century, when over all dovlel the spirit of the well-known hatred of those who by their status or material wealth are issued from a number of medium-sized people ... this is the mood prevailed throughout the intelligent liberal layer . This mood is stable, its replacement is quite conventional in the national socio-cultural traditions. It is present and in a long history of Russia, vyryvayas out of the peasant, Cossack riots Razin, Pugachev, Bolotnikova, a huge number of smaller disturbances, with its complete embodiment in the first decades of Soviet power in the USSR. And today, in the post-Soviet period of our history of dominance in society became a person who is negatively related to independent and proactive bourgeois, socially successful people in general.
      In the art form is a grotesque attitude, but because more clearly expressed in M. Bulgakov Dog Heart. The former pretty dvornyaga became a man of science will, at its core, the western, urgiynogo (created by labor), the approach to life, singing revolutionary songs in chorus, plays the balalaika, and the complexity of the world takes a simple recipe: Yes there is to offer ... A then write, write ... Congress, the Germans have a headache ... puhnet! Take all and divide ... .
      And how in that case be udovoletvoreniem most pressing, basic needs? It is hoped that the daily bread to appear as a result of this section of strangers ( no) of property as if by itself, or it (the bread), or take care of the righteous authority must either velichistvo him good luck and a miracle at all. These desires may be in summary form to express the words of the fairy tale On schuchemu orders, I will of. Hence the love for the pyramid-type MMM, Paul miracles, a game for money, the underlying expectation of manna from heaven, a miracle, capable of easily, sound of daily activities within the framework of market economy together to change lives for the better. Similar nature and are periodic surges of interest in the activities of the President, the Government, the Duma: what they are doing to improve the lives of people in my life, that is I did not do for themselves, but they are for me.
      During the post-Soviet reforms dislike to people, knock out the average number, manifested as a mental invariant, the hatred of the so-called oligarchs, the people of material success, and using the capitalist form of adaptation to a new quality of social and cultural environment. Equalization, which are prone to paternalism, the high level of redistribution of the mentality of Russian society in recent years has changed is not so much as the external socio-cultural set of human life. It is also evident as the total number of background event, and in separate, landmark events, shocking demonstration of the Archaic.
      Thus, the fall of 2003, the chairman of the Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs AI Volski outlined his vision of relations of power and business: Relations with the power must be resolved through negotiation, direct and secret. But that problem did not arise again, the game should be conducted on the rules. And explained: Rules - Russian expression is specific and has a wider meaning than the law. Mr. Sam A. Wolski agreed that entrepreneurs pay for their freedom, for example, by helping the authorities fight poverty, or agreeing to increase the any special taxes on profitable industry. We have to recognize that in today's reformist Russian force was still not in the law, as in archaic folk Pravda (conscience), perceive as a betrayal of the capitalist relations of this very truth (Conscience), a departure from the ideal of justice and equality, understood as the equation of poverty. Indeed, the equation of wealth obviously impossible.
      In addition, the new Russian business is rejection by the Russian authorities on a personal, intuitive level. He had a bunch of shortcomings: not only that people with glasses and tie, but they are often neariyskogo origin, allow yourself to love is not empire, preferring to integrate Russia into the global / European structures, including the military. We have a little change, during the First World War, a famous Russian psychiatrist Professor PI Kovalevskiy published book The Psychology of the Russian nation, which, inter alia, that: In recent years, and we in Russia brought new deleterious Home -- Capital ... For bank officials, speculators, kulaks, the drafters of the syndicates has no nation, no home, no nation. For them - only the capital. For capital there is no honor, no pride, nor the good of the nation. Capital are international and cosmopolitan .
      This was a tradition of suspicion regarding the affairs of people, hanging them all labels and all continues today. Here's fists, right, left, all of them under the root, almost up to the seventh tribe over the years of Soviet rule brought the then-Patriots statesmen, and appeared in postsovetsoy of life, farmers are too small and weak as to raise agriculture, and in order to power neoimperskaya hang labels on them rural miroedov-zahrebernikov Bezrodny and cosmopolitan in one person.
      But if the power is at such a deep, does not perceive the mental level of Russian businessmen, especially large, it is for her another, and a very strong argument in favor of redistribution of property from private business to the state, or at least transfer it from the social / mentally and anthropological distant businessmen to social / mental and the anthropological relatives. All the more clearly a tendency to consider the economic innovation of 90-ies of the XX century, just as the forms, technologies and ways to transform the outdated institutions of distributing the economy to new, adequate material and technological environment and the needs of society. Today's a new phase of large-scale reallocation of resources from all kinds of strong and relatively independent (business community) to the state bureaucracy within the scope of the concept of dominance in the country distributing economy.
      In 90 of the last century in the Russian economy experienced an unprecedented use of a natural exchange, netting, or reciprocal trade. The development of the natural forms of trade was due not only situational reaction of the economic body to reduce the state order and the relative contraction of money supply, but also practical, real expression of collective unconscious, the truth of people's able to translate business visible.
      George Foster, studied the so-called culture of poverty, noted that for the people, living in a more or less universal poverty, all good, all good things in life have seemed a kind of closed system, a resource, which is limited for this group. Accordingly, if someone has one of the group receives an obvious advantage, it will inevitably occur at the expense of other parties to the collective . Russian feudal-imperial power for centuries cultivated the culture of poverty in the country, because the poor and the familiar and easier to manage, they will not be rage with Giroux, that is, have an opinion that differs from the position of power and are unlikely to be his advocate. Soviet period, with its lines, barracks for the workers and zekov, wagons for transportation tselinnikov and recruits was only the latest dramatic step of this long journey.
      For centuries the country was a negative personal selection as the most powerful and independent rejection, at best, getting to emigrate, strengthening their work and intelligence of foreign powers, but as a rule, are physically destroyed in his own country, which inevitably led and leads to a deterioration in the quality of Russian society, to reduce his life chances, and to direct depopulation.
      Today, the selection has already occurred, appeared from a long historical adverse selection, when a society is withdrawn, rejected or isolated people, rising significantly above the level of their environment. At noon, the Stalinist era similar alignment of the level of average and below shown in a literal sense, the tragic withdrawal from the society of people of relatively high in respect of which the Chief could experience some psychological discomfort. On numerous parthozaktivah era dominated by people of average height, as IG Erenburg wrote in his memoirs People. Years. Life , the situation has changed in only 60 of the last century.
       Liberal reform 90-ies of the XX century were striking exception to this rule, the strong were able to develop freely, creating a business, to achieve not only economic but also social success. In the mid 90-ies, there were approximately 20 - 23% with a trend towards reduction.
      But the weak proved much greater and it is not surprising that after such a long period of negative personal selection. Precapitalist (natural) form of family farms has been massively popular in the post-Soviet period, farmers (and not just farmers - SG) developed a virtuoso ability to survive, to anticipate the circumstances and challenges of life. This ability is invaluable in extreme conditions, when the family is forced to turn to the economy itself, closed in the range of related socio-economic structures, rapidly build a network of horizontal, spontaneous, cooperative ties with relatives and villagers. This ability to literally anything done today, a certain self-insurance guaranty system, which - physical and social survival .
      Much of the public asked the pre-technology survival, when in the name of preserving the guaranteed minimum resources required for simple reproduction of biological life, rejecting a risky, innovative behavior. In the post-Soviet period to 70-80% of our compatriots have chosen to adapt the model for reform, which is beyond the scope of the capitalist market economy, reducing consumption to limit the package of goods and services by going to the natural forms of self-reliance.
      The people bezmolvstvuet, in most cases, choosing the passive, undergoing adaptation strategy. In Russia, unlike the CIS, is not widespread labor immigration, except for integration into the world (western) markets the most skilled of workers. A classic example of this can be a labor immigration of Russian programmers have a good scientific training of scientists, engineers, etc. At the same time, the processes of de-industrialization, the destruction of collective-farm system, accompanied by the release of the mass of less skilled workers, have not resulted in any meaningful labor immigration industrial and agricultural workers.
      Posteriori, on the basis of the post-Soviet decade, we can say that the practical use in the traditional socio-cultural traditions of behavior, norms and values found to be ineffective in conditions of transition in Russia.
      But because of the fact, that the wave of Westernization are uneven fits and starts, our modernization has ugly: a large part of winning from the community or the state of individuals not associated market and civilian communications, but turns into a rolling stone , while in fact elements of the old distribution (but not tightly regulated, and haotizirovannoy) systems . This type of ruling in the society did not need more of the artificial breeding of the authorities, he is now in the mode of self, but reproduced in decreasing sizes, a natural population decline is now approximately 800 thousand-million people a year. Can a person what you want to impose standards of living, but you can not force force him to live. Imperial ideals in their current form for the farcical mind the traditional media - this is not what is worth living. Must - have died, but the massive Russian people have not yet been an opportunity to perpetuate and expand the life and the world that exists. This can be seen and the sad statistics of alcoholism, drug abuse and mental disorders.
      Various manifestations of deviant behavior is based on many different factors sotsiokulurnyh, but they are all brought to a common denominator, the name of - despair: The research led scientists to paradoxical conclusions. When an external well-being and economic growth in Russia a real human potential of the rapidly deteriorating . In other words, the country can not run a horizontal arrangement, material development, and success in the consumer society was not yet attainable smyslozhiznennym Project for the bulk of the population of Russia.
      But not everyone in Russia is so gloomy. In the post-Soviet period, formed based on individualism and capitalist forms of activity of alternative adaptation strategies. Motivation ( dostizhencheskaya ) activity serves a prerequisite for success in life strategy, which is designed for social acceptance and receipt of any benefit ... It is based on the needs of the individual in recognition and self-esteem ... It - a strategy of activism and of symbolic values. We took the value of modernizing Russia dostizhitelnyh was the movement of individual motivation on the level of basic underlying representations, symbols and values that guide people in their everyday business conduct.
      Effective methods of economic activity has a more educated part of society, largely coinciding in its borders with Russia's emerging middle class. The results of sociological research Lifestyle middle class, conducted by the magazine expert and by Zircon, indicate that the Russian middle class by more than half is made up of citizens with higher education. A higher level of income, social prestige, power positions than in the whole country, is a consequence of the higher professional qualifications, its demand for free labor market. The education level of entrepreneurs (ie, major businessmen - SG) in 2001, became even higher: 96.9% graduated from a university, 13.4% - more than one institution. More often than not, the second higher education is a legal or economic .
      The use of effective adaptation strategies, which are primarily integrated into the capitalist economy, as in the case of traditional adaptation value is determined by the preferences of the individual. The basic values of average Russians are freedom, will, energy and self-discipline. The higher expression of these values, the closer to the top of the social pyramid. Alternative values to those from whom they have left are the morals, ethics, and the former Soviet membership in the community .
      In daily life gradually include new values, goals, approved by the new practice of life and behavior. For the Russian people have always been important dependence on the external evaluation, ie ekstroobraza person, given the reluctance of the total mass, as expressed in the maxim of type: I am such as all. I am not dependent , etc. Etatistskoe foster a sense of dependence on society, authorities began the process of primary socialization and inkulturatsii personality, continuing to follow all her life. The end of the twentieth century in Russia was marked by a change of practice of socialization and inkulturatsii individual models for success. In the first post-Soviet decade, a growing number of Russians use the new mechanism of social and cultural legitimation of success has been a shift from the predominant learning community, kommunitarnyh values to the values of individualism.
      About 20% of Russians have chosen a strategy for action, ie opened their own businesses, have received professional retraining, using their skills in those regions of Russia and countries of the world where they are more in demand. According to the liberal paradigm, the identity of its own, distinct from the interests of the group, interests. Through the active work of the autonomous individual is able to defend those interests most effectively.
      Anthony Giddens believes that people tend to the cultivation of the risk, can see the unpredictable game case, in circumstances that are perceived by others as a stereotype, do not require creative interpretation. Emerging innovations are expanding the borders of life socially acceptable practices. The lack of divine predetermination, stochastic factor randomness open life situation makes her ambivalence, can be resolved as a result of creative action. In this context, cultivated risk correlates with the values of social consciousness of the era of Modernism. This strategy of self identity, her intelligence, the possibility of good life choices, because Today, the risk is not a matter of choice, it is the destiny.
      Today the membership of the middle class first and foremost determined by the use of positive (bourgeois) life strategies of adaptation, to the fullest extent of the realities of post-Soviet life. These positive models of adaptation used mainly by the Russian middle class.
      Despite the relatively small share of the middle class, composed of Russian society in general, social support of liberal modernization of post-Soviet transition period does not coincide with its boundaries - it is wider. In 1996 - 2000 years (except for a few months after the August 1998 crisis) among Russians polled by sociologists of people felt the need to continue market reforms, greater than the number willing to stop. These people constitute a relative majority in modern Russia. Nearly a third of the adult population were in fact for the upgrades. Naturally, a number of researchers is of the less optimistic view on the nature, effectiveness and availability of social makrosubeta of Russian reforms. Thus, TI Zaslavskaya notes that ... the country had not yet formed a social makrosubekt not only interested in the completion of democratic reforms, but rather an integrated and powerful to solve this problem practically.
      Nevertheless, we believe that, while maintaining relatively favorable external environment, in particular, conditions resulting from the inventory syrevyh markets, tax regime, is working on the formation of such a macro-actor, interested in continuing the transformation processes within the liberal model of modernization. This is the most strong, young, educated, rational uses of life strategy and having positive motivations in life of society. This Russian yuppie mid to late 90-ies of the XX century, the people who can not be used for the next ideokraticheskogo project.
      A makrosubekt concerned with the Europeanization of Russia, the movement towards integration into international institutions and, in particular, European economic, political and military structures. It is integrated into the structure of a united Europe can reinforce the status of a liberal model of modernization and, consequently, an alternative liberal socio-cultural system as a dominant.
      The middle class is developing dynamically, so the three years of research conducted under the auspices of the magazine expert, he grew up from 14 to 25% of the total population of the country, it, with a sufficient degree of conditionality can be divided into upper, middle and lower . According to the methodology of the study, membership in a particular layer of the middle class is determined by the level of monthly income per family member.
      The Russian middle class gradually ceases to be a thing in itself, defines his preferences in the field of norms and values, including those related to collectivism and individualism, political parties etc. t This is evidenced by the results of sociological research, so the fall of 2002 by the magazine expert and of Zircon a study was conducted The political preferences of the middle class. We give some figures of per capita income of various groups of the middle class, which largely correlates with its values and ideological preferences.
      Let's begin. Less profitable group of middle class (lower middle class) are more inclined to follow the Russian socio-cultural traditions, they are significant values such as collectivism, social justice, their representatives are more drawn to the left of the political spectrum. The composition of this, the most numerous group of about 60% of the total number of the Russian middle class, composed of Russian citizens with a monthly income per person in a family of about 150 - 250 USD. United States. This group is usually represented by ordinary clerks of private companies and government agencies, middle managers and labor aristocracy.
      More profitable groups prefer individualistic values that are willing to take risks, personal choice, tending, primarily, to the right side of the Russian political spectrum. In this, the least numerous group of middle class, representing about 12%, were citizens whose monthly income per person in the family exceeds the amount equivalent to 400 USD. United States. Upper middle class consists of the top managers of large and medium-sized companies, owners of small firms, highly qualified professionals.
      Between the upper and lower group is secondary middle class income level which is in the range from 250 to 400 USD. United States. According to their values, this age group is largely drawn to the positions occupied by upper middle class, which is likely due to the large historical and personal optimism, faith in their abilities. This group is about 28% of the total number of middle class.
      Lower middle class is an active supporter of social justice and equalization of the social and cultural spheres of society, which manifests itself in the desire of state paternalism, narrowing the gap between the most and the least well off groups. It is important active government policy in matters of employment, his participation in the relationship between labor and capital, which is complemented by a relatively high support for the redistribution, nationalization of property obtained by fraudulent means. During the revision of the outcomes of privatization in this group of respondents supported the order of 27% of respondents, against 16% in the group of upper middle class. According to the views shared by the majority of lower middle class, the state must play an active role in economic management, in addressing the conflicts between labor and capital. At the same time, it should be noted the high level of commitment to democratic values, which is considered by the Panel to declare the respondents, representing the lower middle class. The authors of the study suggest that the lower middle class is an electoral framework for the development of Russian social democracy. In the lower middle class of some heightened sense of social justice, therefore, in our view, part of it may well promenyat civil liberties in the public justice of feudal-imperial model.
      Upper middle class for a number of positions is of a different view than their counterparts from low-income groups of the middle class. According to prevailing in this environment point of view, the state must finally abandon the traditional policy of paternalism in relation to society as a whole and the business community in particular. Upper middle class supports the concept of a liberal economy, opposes the redistribution of property, rather it should be the State, as the partner, but not a guardian. These people do not sirye and sordid, but equal and worthy.
      In other words, the upper group of Russian middle-class self-confidence, speaking for self-development, the emancipation of the individual, is capable to solve their basic life's problems. These views largely coincide with the classical liberal tradition, which the government created to protect the free citizens of constitutional rights, this function of the state and should be limited. According to the liberal concept of personality, because there are no objective (scientific) methods to determine its preference for the individual, the individuals themselves should decide what is right and what is false, reaching a maximum value and efficiency in various fields of activity. A distinctive feature of the system views (upper middle class - SG) is a recognition of the high value of independence, will power and self-discipline. It appears, based on these resources, they have achieved what they have achieved .
      As an upper middle class, and gravitating to the middle part make up the potential electoral base of right-wing parties. Lower middle class is focused more on social democratic values. This creates the potential for the development of two-party democratic system, the vector of development which, according to the change of value orientation of the Russian middle class is aimed at building a democratic Russia in the sociocultural system. Gradually realizing himself as a social group with their own economic, political and cultural interests of the upper and middle section of part of the emerging middle class acts as a potential subject of a liberal model of Russian modernization.
      Considering the forms of social competition as a cultural phenomenon, K. Mannheim divides two fundamentally different approaches to life. The first approach assumes that a man driven by conscious goals, it is ambitious and knows the firm, which seeks rational world perceives and understands time as a sort of integrity. Personality nurtured the qualities necessary for the economic struggle: the courage, realism, the ability to analyze the psychology of the opponent, keen interest to learn the interdependence of phenomena, a constant anticipation of new opportunities, the ability to see the perspective of each of the advances in their supply chain, to live near future than the present, not satisfied already reached, to press for new chances of success, believing that their implementation is more important than what has been achieved, in short, a perpetual effort to outdo ourselves, and inability to drag the existence of .
      Difficulties, obstacles to the goal, temporary setbacks can not stop such a person: The basic values of average Russians are freedom, will, energy and self-discipline. The higher expression of these values, the closer to the top of the social and cultural pyramids. Alternative values to those from whom they have left are the morals, ethics, and the former Soviet membership in the community .
      In contrast to the first, activist, dostizhitelnomu type of person, dominant in society, modern, second type, which is typical, particularly for the traditional / polutraditsionnogo, including the Soviet society, a more passive, a man of this type abandoned the struggle for life success. The time for it - intermittent and static, it is the entire surface of the power of moods, and his lie is always the risk of renunciation. This risk of loss of self - the eternal source of flour. If the situation does not change through the total life style change, the loss of life itself becomes a target. Thus, loss of property I have is the basic feature of the submission of the Indians of nirvana. Christian mysticism reflects a desire to merge the individual with Christ until completely dissolved in Christ . The second type of personality is definitely correlated with the Orthodox religious tradition, which is very peculiar secular content in the Soviet era, accounting for human old Russian feudal imperial system.
      So, we briefly considered the possibility of two basic life strategies used by our compatriots in the post-Soviet Russia - and the bourgeois doburzhuaznuyu. The first group life policies was mainly involved the upper and middle part of the middle class and the second group of the rest, as we have already noted, most of Russian society. This is the proportion of those and the other has a serious impact on the selection of possible scenarios for the future development of Russia.
      In this regard, we note that Leaky against the backdrop of a dangerous trend arhaizatsii regular public consciousness and, apparently, the newest last imperial modernization / restoration is not able to resolve its direct challenge - to restore the empire. A more obvious denial of power from the liberal model of modernization inevitably lead to an acceleration lag Russia for most of the indicators not only of the western world, but also from non-western countries, standing in the way of modernization. In particular, this refusal will lead to increasing technological gap, as based on an imperial model of modernization, which, as we have shown, based on massive public servitude in the post-technological era to achieve parity with the Euro-Atlantic civilization modernize fundamentally impossible. To achieve and maintain that parity need a free man, professional, free feeling in the country, perceiving power, the media, especially television, without rejection and allergy.
      It is a paradox at first glance it sounds - without ATP and apples in the Parliament (now my party, and they represent my interests in power), without free choice in a free morning newspaper over a cup of coffee - no technological parity, including the the military field, in post-industrial world can not be. Its just there to support. Free and professional people will find themselves far more paid work and a greater degree of freedom anywhere in Los Alamos, and the imperial office, not only for fear but for conscience is ready to do so parity - it will not be able to achieve. Not that era, not the degree of internal freedom, not the access to information, and at the outlet - not the degree of creativity. All this, in turn, closes for the possibility of Russia joining the post-World and the prospects for building an information society - the technology gap will become irreversible.
      But not all so sad, another fateful choice made for the country is not yet up to the end and 90-ies of XX century were predominantly time liberal modernization. And all this time were in the process of economic, partly political, and even to a lesser extent, the cultural development of Russia's middle class - the foundation of a liberal society. Yes, this process was slow and difficult and, at the subjective level, not all representatives of the Russian middle class is shared liberal values. Modern urban bourgeoisie still small and not fully aware of their political interests, but in the medium gradually vyzrevaet psychological readiness, if not in direct opposition to the feudal-imperial state, then at least to protect their property by any means available. Some modern authors believe that this was in pre-Soviet Russia.
      Thus, the ratio of non-Russians to the property in pre-Soviet period, the modern Russian philosopher and student of AF Losev, Vladimir B. Bibihin described as follows: If in Russia private property is so easy, almost without resistance, has been swept socialist swirl of passions, it is only because too weak a faith in the truth of private property, and themselves ograblyaemye owners negoduya on looters for personal reasons, deep in their hearts do not believe in their right, not aware of his sanctity, did not feel their responsibility to defend it, in fact, secretly believed in the moral justice of recent goals Socialists .
      So, quite deliberately polemical focus, comment above. We believe that private ownership - is sacred, so it must be protected in every possible way and, above all, political. If the representatives of the Russian business community in large numbers will not engage in political activity, if the business community remain thing in itself, - on private property in Russia will soon forget. The question of its existence in Russia, albeit in a more mild forms, is exactly the same as in October 1917. And in front of large and small owners is the same - a tragic question - are you ready to defend their property, and thus the new Russia? Freedom of modern Russian owner of a false shame and fear of the night having the property - it is psychological, but the sine qua non for making it into private ownership in the strict sense of the word.
      We believe that in the post-Soviet modernization and the most educated part of the middle class can accelerate sunset dominant imperial-feudal system and contribute to the formation of new, alternative liberal-democratic system that is able over time to fight for dominance. Liberal disistema gradually spread its influence in various spheres of public life, though her very life can not be described otherwise than polulatentnuyu. The evolution and expansion of permanent life liberal disistemy successful with some circumstances offers to Russia the prospect of the progressive liberal transformation. But such a scenario development is by no means the only and inevitable, it is possible and the implementation of scenarios, leading the country into another historical appendix.
      However, there is a possibility long enough to avoid any form of certainty, to conduct situational politics Fire Response, maintaining the current stability on the basis of we would prostoyat day, but lasted the night. This, though not fully conscious, the choice of turning specific actions in both domestic and foreign policy into a set of mutually exclusive provisions, declared in an effort for sure, instead of the full range of possible future decisions. However, in recent years, quite clearly has a choice in favor of kvaziimperskogo development, which naturally requires a certain ideology. This path of development is closer to home, instinctively, as it reproduces itself, acquire new semantics \ old ideological oposredovany. Feudal-imperial Russia, and the choice of the future kvaziimperskuyu power more or less consciously supported and least-educated and material support of the middle class.
      Nevertheless, the concept of future choices, and this development has not yet been made final, the situation is developing in mezheumochnomu, ambivalent scenario. Today the country continues to balance in the area of intersection of imperial and liberal modernization trends, but between the imperial and liberal models of social development can not be any long-term and sustainable compromise. At the empirical level, in society, heterogeneous and multidirectional trends in the diffuse state, but the dominant strategic development can not be simultaneously transmitted in opposite directions, sooner or later will have to make a historic choice. And the longer burdened imperial tradition of power would oppose that choice, so painful it would have to pay in the short-term historical perspective, because the future of a feudal empire in the modern world no. In view of the known limitations of individual human life it is a pity only that the period without a future can sometimes last for a long time.
      In 1247 in Europe from the distant and dangerous journey to the empire Chingizhana returned papal ambassador Franciscan Giovanni da Plano Carpini, left contemporaries and descendants seen a description of the country, a description that contains a mass of factual material, recognized by historians quite reliable. The fifth chapter book On the Origin of the empire of the Tartars and their princes, and the power of Emperor dramatically different from the rest of the text of the fantastic events that we believe their symbols in a way consonant with the theme of this monograph. According to Carpini, Chingizhan, seeking to gain the whole world, has forbidden his soldiers to return before winning a complete victory, conquering not only a neighbor, and therefore culturally close, but distant, barbaric people. Warriors Chingiz fighting, or trying to fight with people who do not belong to our earthly world, adding to the chaos empire space, an attempt to acquire world domination pushes the Mongols of extraordinary scope. This fascinating parable at the same time, and instructive: the author predicted swift collapse of the empire fantastic.
      Empires do not last forever. We know this is probably the best of those distant events contemporaries. Postimperskoe Russian government is trying to turn painfully naezzhennoy with centuries of imperial gauge, and so painfully, competing with neoimperskim project sprouts break the new democratic state. Empire, seeking to reach the world, namely, that empire was the USSR, will inevitably include in the body is heterogeneous, and therefore incompatible socio-cultural elements, such territory Civilizational antipodes, as Estonia and Tajikistan. Imbued with the culture and, naturally, the human world, the empire dies. The death of an old clearing space to reformat the fundamental qualities of the cultural and civilizational systems, on the ruins of the empire grow nation-state, reaching its historical due to the road: those in Europe, for freedom and democracy, who in the gray zone of authoritarianism, violence, domination saving ideologies : less secular, more religious. Here it seems appropriate to recall the admonition Russian philosopher EN Trubetskoy, noting the dangerous tendencies of his time, quite clearly, and reproduce in the bottom of this: Gromily, lzhepravoslavnye, lzhepatrioty, and with them new and false prophets will prepare a new and more horrible than now, the explosion Bolshevism . And today, it probably is not so much about the revival of Bolshevism, but temptation of militant nationalism and imperial. Yes blow us even in this, once again, This cup. The first is where a lighter, better and simply better. And that is why we sincerely hope to change the content and objectives of the Russian Modernization: Modernization is not to strengthen the empire, but for the sake of man, his earthly, everyday existence, comfort, and satiety, if you will, the bourgeois, more or less regular life on the European model. Searching obryaschut yes, the chance of a shift from predominantly imperial liberal model of modernization today is very low, but everything goes so fast, soon another era, as ever you can not hide from history.
      Rainy summer 2004. The book is already written, and the window broken old and the new era is born. Therefore, a few words postscript. So. The scenarios for the country, of course, different and just as obviously not all of them lead to the construction of the liberal values of the Russian state, many of them just lead to nowhere. It is in this, still not very advanced, and therefore treatable stage performance of ordinary / extraordinary script development, we are likely, and are today. Further movement in this direction can lead Russia in next historical appendix, the probability of the third for a hundred years of civilizational breakdown, accompanied by yet another violation of cultural continuity.
      After the October Revolution of 1917, Winston Churchill said that Russia sank at the entrance to the harbor of salvation. Today, Russia has never approached the harbor of European life, but the imperial / neoimperskaya power itself, the third time (!) For a century, opens Kingston. Three civilizational crisis over a hundred years - that disease symptoms of deep socio-cultural body of Russia. Dead grab alive, should already dead, but through their own individual, the inertia of existing and dying subdiskursov yet capable of simulation-farcical revival.
      In the name of agonizing must now begin to decay the foundation of a new post-Soviet Russian state. You can not build a stable post-Soviet Russia on Moscow's new processes, taking into account the historical realities of today, with skalkirovannyh of the middle - second half of the 30-ies of the last century. If the largest Russian businessmen are not socially close to the Soviet authorities to the criminal environment, but from the Soviet / Russian intellectuals declared almost criminal serial killers, why not to open the transcript ezhovskogo public and law of the first and not blame them same, and then the unknown number of little ones in preparation for the sale of parts of the homeland (the Far East - Japan, the Ukraine - to the realities of today's Manchester City - Germany), and spying for foreign intelligence? Why not come down to the place of arrest raznoryadku Bezrodny cosmopolitan, spy, and other enemies of the people? Unfortunately, these issues today in the field of virtual fears of Soviet / Russian intellectuals moved into action, as we have seen above, in the history of Russia, and nobody teaches nothing. Let us recall the textbook: in the 30's line managers and other performers / witnesses of mass repression faced their victims for a year or two of the three forces. Today, history repeats itself in the rather farcical form, but still ...
      However, it is not quite true. The entire post-Soviet period there was a significant outflow of capital from Russia, despite the fact that the country has long kept much higher rate of return than, for example, in European Union countries, and markets for capital, goods and services were far from saturation. According to economic laws, business should be done in Russia, and the capital was not to leave the country, but seek it from all over the world. Natural question - why? In the post-Soviet Russia зашкаливали and зашкаливают today, political risks, which inevitably projected and the economy. The main reason for the current state of things is, if not declared a direct denial of the right to private property, especially large, the consideration of it as tertiary in importance, occupying isolated places in the accepted hierarchy of values.
      In this regard, the author of a historical allusion subjective - why should formally nationalize property, if it were possible to transmit it to the reliable hands of real-Aryans statesmen who will, in fact, the only public managers, serving the interests of power in the economy and in politics . And if the possession of the property is always conditional, if it is always possible to select, then who can come in the Russian economy in earnest and for long? Such a property burns his hands, and there are two main options for its use. Either the funds are diverted from the business, with its subsequent collapse, or the business structure of a few better organized and to the subsequent sale to foreign investors, who seem to be more protected from weaning property. Quite naturally, that is relevant to ownership drastically reduces the probability of a positive scenario for the future of Russia and so radically increases the probability of negative scenarios. In addition, the reserve of ownership inevitably leads to the conditionality of democracy in general, it is absolutely interdependent processes.
      That is why hundreds of thousands (millions?) Of our most enterprising and visionary grazhan lived and acted during the entire post-Soviet period of our life, time after time repeating favorite words of K. Stanislavsky, addressed to the actors: I do not believe, - that is, you play unconvincing. All we were told that the country's democracy, pluralism, the rule of private property and, more importantly, turning to the old will not, but they answered, - Do not believe! - And bought real estate in Europe, received dual citizenship, as a last resort to keep the hands of ticket with open date of departure. If anything, and could teach Russian / Soviet man, all our history - is berezhenogo - God saves, and the guard should be first and foremost imperial state.
      By the old will not return, but the communist regime is the only possible historical appendix, which can reach Russia? There is and it is likely dead-end path Thermidor imperial and nationalist utopias, the threat of radical actions by the authorities in order to preserve / recreate the empire.
      Yes, we have seen only a few trends that demonstrate the feasibility of this scenario as the dominant, but to bury once again Russia is too early, will always remain unexpressed our hope - maybe proneset. We are now in ascending (upward) cycle, macroeconomic dynamics, extremely high prices for oil and other commodity prices of our exports - so far, quite possibly, proneset. But behave as power, with such a mentality in the descending phase of the macroeconomic cycle - almost did not have to guess.
      Furthermore, emigration - it is not a universal solution. I would like to speak in Russian, live in a suitable social environment, to get information from news releases on Russian TV, and just to see decent (socially / mentally close) a person in authority. And why, actually, we should leave, but they do not?
      But not all that bad, I have now Thermidor and good investigation. For example, at last there is a country strong and unified presence of the total, so let's say the opponent's right-wing parties, good question, to make friends who will be key in the Russian partstroitelstve, in general, partly personal, terms had been settled. The successful partstroitelstvu a known proportion of adrenaline night: behold, skripnuli at Door brakes, and here - has already arrived for the neighbor.
      So, the formula of a new era, that all the more acute in the air the new Russian life: smaller businesses, which really is a business, more privacy and perhaps policy, the benefit still is the Internet, computers with scanners and printers, so the order of forgotten for 90-years old and reliable radio Freedom. Curtain rises, all we are back in the wind of history, and again The Times did not choose, / They live and die. / The most dishonesty in the light / No than asking and blame. / As if they can be on these, / How to change the market .
      1. Habakkuk. Pisaneytse boyar FM Rtischevo / / Life of Habakkuk, and others of his compositions / Comp. Entered. Art. and коммент. A. Robinson. - M.: Sov. Russia, 1991. - S. 126-129.
      2. Averintsev SS Byzantium and Russia: Two types of spirituality. Art. second. Law and grace / / New World. - M., 1988. - Љ 9. - S. 227-239.
      3. Averintsev SS Byzantium and Russia: Two types of spirituality. Art. first. The legacy of the holy Powers / / New World. - M., 1988. - Љ 7. - S. 210-220.
      4. Adorno T. Psychological technics in speeches of Martin Luther
      Thomas on the radio / Under the general ed. Dr. Philosophy. Mr. VP Kultygina. - M: Silver threads, 2001. - S. 312-407.
      5. Allard E. Questionable merits of the modernization / Per. England. NV Romanovskii / / Socis. - M., 2002. - Љ 9 (221) - S. 60-79.
      6. Amalrik A. Note dissident / Prev. P. Litvinova. - Moscow: Slovo, 1991. - 432 pp.
      7. Amin S. Economic globalism and political universalism: conflicting results? (Ref. review Rakhmanov AB) / / Sociology: RJ / RAS. INION. - M., 2003. - Љ 1. - S. 49-56.
      8. Arendt H. The Origins of Totalitarianism / Per. England. IV Borisova, Yu.A. Kimeleva, AD Kovalev, and DR - M.: TsentrKom, 1996. - 672 pp.
      9. Arkhangelsk N. This is all about it / / Expert. - 2003. - Љ 25 (379). - S. 50-51.
      10. Arkhipova DA modernization and transformation in the former socialist camp. (Consolidated summary). Social and Human Sciences. Domestic and foreign literature. Ser. 11, Sociology: RJ / RAS. INION, Center for Social. scientific inform. Issled.; Otd. sociology and social. psychology. - M.: INION Russian Academy of Sciences, 2003. - Љ 1. - S. 28-46.
      11. Akhiezer A. How to open closed society - M.: Master. 1997. - 40 pp.
      12. Akhiezer A. Russia: historical experience of the critic. - T.I. - M.: Philos. Society of the USSR, 1991. - 318 pp.
      13. Akhiezer A. Russia: historical experience of the critic. - T.II. - M.: Philos. Society of the USSR, 1991. - 377 pp.
      14. Akhiezer A. Russia: historical experience of the critic. (Sociocultural dynamics of Russia). - T. II. Theory and methodology: Glossary. - Novosibirsk: Siberian chronograph, 1998. - 594 pp.
      15. Akhiezer A., Davydov AP, Shurovsky MA, Yakovenko IG, Yarkova E. Socio-cultural reasons and the meaning of Bolshevism. - Novosibirsk: Siberian chronograph, 2002. - 610 pp.
      16. Akhiezer A. Sociocultural mechanisms cycles Culture / / The Art of the situation changing cycles: Interdisciplinary aspects of artistic culture in the transition process. - M.: Nauka, 2002. - S. 116-135.
      17. Balabanova E. Features of the Russian Economic Culture / / World of Russia. -Tom X. - Љ 3. - M., 2001. - S. 67-77.
      18. Bauman Z. individualized society / Per. England. Ed. VL Inozemtsev. - M.: Logos, 2002. - 390 pp.
      19. Baumgartner JM philosophy for Europe / / Ideas Europeanism in the second half of XX century: Ref. Sat. / RAS INION. Center of scientific-inform. Issled. Global. and regionalization. Probl.; Otd. Zap. Europe and America. - M., 2000. - С.42-51. - (Social and human sciences in the XX century).
      20. A. Besancon Forbidden Image: Intellectual History ikonoborchestva / Per. with fr. M. Rozanova. - Moscow: MIK, 1999. - 424 pp.
      21. Besancon A. The Russian Empire and Soviet domination / / Soviet and now Russian history: The collection of articles / Per. with fr. A. Babic (Chapters IV-XI) and M. Rozanova (Chapters I-III). - Moscow: MIK, 1998. - S. 99-110.
      22. Besancon A. Russia in XIX century / / Soviet and now Russian history. Collection of Articles / Per. with fr. A. Babic (Chapters IV-XI) and M. Rozanova (Chapters I-III). - Moscow: MIK, 1998. - S. 11-28.
      23. Beck U. Risk Society. On the way to another Art Nouveau / Per. with it. B. Sidelnikov, N. Fyodorova. - M.: Progress-Tradition, 2000. - 384s.
      24. VG Belinsky Petersburg and Moscow / Modern Notes - M.: Sov. Russia, 1983. - S. 223-255.
      25. VG Belinsky Letter to VP Botkin (1841) / / Full. SOBR. cit. - Moscow: Publishing House of USSR Academy of Sciences, 1955 - 1956. - T. V. - S. 95-96.
      26. Belle G. Dostoevsky today? Responses to the questionnaire from November 12, 1971 / / assemblies. cit.: 5 tons / Per. with it. A. Dranova. - T. 5. - M.: Hood. lit., 1996. - S. 431-448.
      27. Belle, on Vladimir Bukovsky / / assemblies. cit.: 5 tons / Per. with it. A. Dranova. - T. 5. - M.: Hood. lit., 1996. - S. 606-615.
      28. Belle G. Solzhenitsyn and the West / / assemblies. cit.: 5 tons / Per. with it. N. Bunin. - T. 5. - M.: Hood. lit., 1996. - S. 522-540.
      29. A. White Apocalypse in Russian poetry / / Meadow Green: Book articles. - M.: book publishing ALTSIONA, 1910. - S. 222-247.
      30. Benvenisti E. Dictionary of Indo-European social terms: Per. in French / Total. Ed. and entered. Art. S. Stepanov. - M.: Progress-Universal, 1995. - 456s.
      31. Benhabib S. Claims of Culture. Equality and diversity in the global era: Per. England. / Ed. VI Inozemtsev. - M.: Logos, 2003. - 350p.
      32. Berger P. Capitalist Revolution: 50 theses on the prosperity, equality and freedom / Per. England. GP Blyablina. - Moscow: Progress - Universal, 1994. - 320p.
      33. Berdyaev H. A. Origins and Meaning of Russian Communism. Репринтное QuickList edition YMCA-PRESS, 1955 - Moscow: Nauka, 1990. - 224s.
      34. Berdyaev H. A. Russian idea. The main problems of Russian thought the XIX century and beginning of XX century / / Russian idea. The fate of Russia. - Moscow: Publishing House V. Shevchuk, 2000. - P. 3-221.
      35. Berdyaev N. A. The sense of history. - Moscow: Mysl, 1997. - 175s.
      36. Berdyaev N. A. The fate of Russia. - M.: Sov. writer, 1990. - 346s.
      37. Berdyaev NA Миросозерцание Dostoyevsky. - Prague: The YMKA-PRESS Ltd (American publisher), 1923. - 234 pp.
      38. Berlin I. Herzen and Bakunin on the freedom of the individual / / The history of liberty. Russia / Preface A. Etkind. - Moscow: New Literary Review, 2001. - S. 85-126.
      39. Berlin I. The originality of Machiavelli / / The real aim of knowledge: Selected essays / Per. England. comments and V. Sapova. - Moscow: Kanon +, 2002. - S. 295-368.
      40. Berlin I. The Birth of the Russian intelligentsia / / The history of liberty. Russia / Preface A. Etkind. - Moscow: New Literary Review, 2001. - S. 9-32.
      41. Bessonova OE Institutes distributing the economy of Russia: a retrospective analysis. - Novosibirsk: Publishing House of the IE and OPP SB RAS, 1997. - 76 pp.
      42. Bessonova OE Institutional Theory of Economic Development of Russia / / The social trajectory of reforming Russia: Novosibirsk Research School of Economics and sociological / Ed. Ed. TI Zaslavskaya, ZI Kalugina. - Novosibirsk: Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1999.
      43. Bibihin B. B. Of the stories AF Loseva / / Start: The religious-philosophical journal. -1992. - Љ 2 (8). - S. 124-144.
      44. VV Bibihin his own / / Expert. -2003. - Љ 22 (376). - S. 91-95.
      45. J. H. Billington The Icon and the ax. Experience in interpretation of the history of Russian culture / Per. England. - M.: Rudomino, 2001. - 880 pp.
      46. Block M. Feudal society / / Block M. Апология craft of history or the historian / Per. with fr. EM Lisenko. - M.: Nauka, 1986. - S. 122-181.
      47. Bolshakova OV modernization paradigm in Anglo-American rusistike (Russian Empire) / / Political Science. Political development and modernization: Modern studies: Sat. science. tr. / RAS INION. Social Center. scientific inform. Issled.; Otd. political science. Ross, Assoc. politics, science, Ed. Ed. and status. AG Volodin. - M., 2003. - S. 141-159.
      48. Bolshakova OV Russian Empire: The control system (modern foreign historiography): Analytical review / RAS INION. Social Center. scientific inform. Issled.; Otd. otech. and abroad. History, Ed. Ed. Shevyrin VM - M., 2003. - 92 pp.
      49. Bondarev GA Pending culture. - M.: Philosophical-anthropological izd-vo, 1996. - 528 pp.
      50. Braudel F. The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II: At 3 am Part 1: The Role of Environment / Per. with fr. MA Yusima. - Moscow: Languages of Slavonic Culture, 2002. - 496 pp.
      51. Brodsky I. Lullaby cape cod / / Works of Joseph Brodsky. - T. III. - Edition 2-e. - SPb.: Pushkin Fund, 1998. - S. 81-91.
      52. Brodsky I. Letter Roman friend (from Martsiala) / / Works of Joseph Brodsky. - T. III. - Edition 2-e. - SPb.: Pushkin Fund, 1998. - S. 10-12.
      53. Brodsky I. It spilled milk on the / / Works of Joseph Brodsky. - T. II. - Edition 2-e. - SPb.: Pushkin Fund, 1998. - S. 179-190.
      54. Bukovsky Vladimir Moscow process. - Moscow: MIK; Paris: Russian thought, 1996. - 528 pp.
      55. Bulgakov SN Orthodoxy: Essays teachings of the Orthodox Church. - Moscow: Terra, 1991. - 415 pp.
      56. Buchanan, D. M. Bounds freedom. Between anarchy and Leviafanom / / Buchanan DM Works / Per. England. Paramonova Yu.N., Solov'eva AA Series: Nobel laureates in economics. T. 1. / Fund economic initiatives; Gl. Ed. count.: Nour P. M. and others - M.: Alpha Taurus, 1997. - S. 207-438.
      57. Weil, P., A. Genis 60 th. World of Soviet man. - 3rd ed. - Moscow: Novoe Lit. Review, 2001. - 368 pp.
      58. Wallerstein I. The end of the friend of peace: Sociology of the XXI century / Per s angl. Ed. VL Inozemtsev. - M.: Logos, 2003. - 368 pp.
      59. Wallerstein I. The birth and death of a capitalist future mirosistemy: conceptual framework for comparative analysis / / An analysis of world systems and the situation in the modern world / Per. England. P. Kudyukina. - SPb.: The University. Book, 2001. - S. 19-62.
      60. Vasilenko IA Political processes at the turn of the cultures. - Moscow: Editorial URSS, 1998. - 224 pp.
      61. M. Weber to the condition of bourgeois democracy in Russia / / Milestones .- 1997. - Љ 5 (20). - S. 120-131.
      62. Weber M. Sociology of Religion. Types of Religious Communities / / Weber M. favorite. The image of the society / Per. with it. MI Southpaw, A. B. Mikhailov, C. B. Karpushin. - Moscow: Jurist, 1994. - S. 78-308.
      63. Veydle B. The boundaries of Europe / / Dying Art / Comp. and auth. poslesl. VM Tolmachev. - Moscow: Republic, 2001. - S. 117-123.
      64. B. Three Veydle Russia / / Dying Art / Comp. and auth. poslesl. VM Tolmachev. - Moscow: Republic, 2001. - S. 132-143.
      65. Vernadsky GV Russia in the Middle Ages / Per. England. EP Berenshtein, BL Gubman, OV Stroganov. - Tver: LEAN. - M.: AGRAF, 2001. - 352 pp.
      66. Veselovsky MP Виновата whether the science in the modern economic difficulties? / / Virgin soil. - SPb.-M.: T-MO in Wolff, 1885. - Volume IV. - Љ 14. - S. 230-247.
      67. Wiegand VK Orientalizatsiya world system - a threat to the West? / / The global community: the mapping of post-World / Comp. and TOB. Ed. AI Neklessa etc. - M.: Eastern. lit., 2002. - S. 371-384.
      68. Vinogradsky V. Guns weak: the technology and the social logic of the peasant family economy / / Knowledge - force. - 2000. - Љ 7 (877). - S. 66-70.
      69. Vishnevsky AG Serp and Ruble: Conservative Modernization in the USSR. - Moscow: OGI, 1998. - 432 pp.
      70. O. Vlasov No will to life / / Expert. - 2003. - Љ 46. - S. 92-93.
      71. Voinovich VN extraordinary life and adventures of a soldier Ivan Chonkina: Roman. Kn. 1, 2. - Moscow: Book House, 1990. - 544 pp.
      72. Volkogonova OD Russian idea. Dreams and reality / / Postzapadnaya civilization. Liberalism: Past, Present and Future / Under total. Ed. SN Yushenkova. - M: A new factor in 2002. - P.158-181.
      73. Voloshin M. Leakey creativity. Book Four. - L.: Nauka, 1989. - S. 416-426.
      74. Wolff RP On Philosophy / Per. England. OL Bezruchkina, VI Spiridonova; Ed. VA Lektorskogo, TA Alekseeva. - M.: Aspect Press, 1996. - 415 pp.
      75. Voslensky M. feudal socialism. Place of nomenclature in the history / / New World. - 1991. - Љ 9 (797). - S. 184-201.
      76. The enemies of the people (to the outcome of the anti-Soviet trotskistskogo center). - M.: Partizdat, 1937. - 133 pp.
      77. Call LG Sociocultural transformation of Russian society and the prospects for the formation of neo-conservative bias / / The basic values of Russians: Social installation. Life strategy. Characters. Myths / Ed. Ed. Ryabov AV, Kurbangaleeva E. Sh - M.: Intellectual House Books, 2003. - S. 5-96.
      78. Vysheslavtsev BP crisis of industrial culture / Comp. and approx. Sapov VV; Introduction. Article Levitsky S. - M.: Raritet, 1995. - S. 181-434.
      79. Gavrov, Sergey modernization processes: an attempt of classification / / Proceedings of the International Academy of Sciences of Higher School. -2003. - Љ 2 (24). - S. 74-81.
      80. Gavrov, Sergey Modernization: from vertical to horizontal dimension of life / / The scientists note. - Issue 25. - M.: MGUKI, 2003. - S. 49-58.
      81. Gavrov, Sergey transition from Soviet to post-Soviet phase of the modernization of social and cultural spheres of Russian society / / culture, management, economics, law. - Moscow: Jurist, 2003. - Љ 2. - S. 5-14.
      82 Gavrov, Sergey Russian Modernization: the impact of social and cultural traditions / / Proceedings of the International Academy of Sciences of Higher School. -2003. - Љ 4 (26). - S. 159-168.
      83. Gaidar E. T. Anomalies of Economic Growth: A manual for high schools. - M.: Master, 1997. - 229 pp.
      84. Heine G. Perfume elements / Per. with it. A. Gorenfelda: Composition: 10 tons - Vol 6. / Ed. N. Y. Berkovskogo, VM Zhirmunskogo, J. M. Metallova. - M.: Gosizdat, 1958. - S. 281-345.
      85. Heine G. On the history of religion and philosophy in Germany / Per. with it. A. Gorenfelda: Composition: 10 tons - Vol 6. / Ed. N. Y. Berkovskogo, VM Zhirmunskogo, J. M. Metallova. - M.: Gosizdat, 1958. - S. 13-142.
      86. Heine G. lutetium: Articles on politics, art and folk life / Per. with it. AV Fedorov: Composition: 10 tons - Vol 8. / Ed. N. Y. Berkovskogo, VM Zhirmunskogo, J. M. Metallova. - M.: Gosizdat, 1958. - P. 7-318.
      87. Geller M. History of the Russian Empire: The 3 tons - M: MIC, 1997. - T. II. - 320 pp.
      88. M. Geller and machine screws. The history of the formation of Soviet man. - Moscow: MIK, 1994. - 336 pp.
      89. Geller M. Russian Zametki 1991-1996. - Moscow: MIK, 1998. - 320 pp.
      90. Gellner E. Conditions of Liberty. Civil society and its historical rivals. - Moscow: Ad Marginem, 1995. - 223 pp.
      91. Gerbershteyn C. Note on Moskovia / Per. with it. AI Maleina, AV Nazarenko, Ed. VL Ianina. - M.: MSU, 1988. - 430 pp.
      92. Gertsen AI literature and public opinion since December 14, 1825 / / Op.: V. 2 - Vol.2. - Moscow: Mysl, 1986. - S. 118-138.
      93. AI Gertsen Moscow and Russian Pan-Slavism Europeanism / / Op.: V. 2 - 2. - Moscow: Mysl, 1986. - S. 138-154.
      94. AI Gertsen Russia / / assemblies. cit.: 30 t. - M.: Publishing House of USSR Academy of Sciences. 1954-1965. - T. V. - S. 313-314.
      95. Gertsen AI From the shore / / Op.: V. 2 - Vol.2. - Moscow: Mysl, 1986. - P. 3-117.
      96. Hesse G. Brothers Karamazov, or The Fall of Europe / / Letters in circles: Peer. with the German / Comp., auth. foreword. and коммент. VD Sedelnikov. - Moscow: Progress, 1987. - S. 104-115.
      97. Gefter M. Threshold (From monologues 1990) / / XX Century and Peace, 1990. - Љ 6. - S. 32-36.
      98. Giddens A. The consequences of moderniti / Per. England. / / A new wave of post in the West: An Anthology / Ed VL Inozemtsev. - M.: Academia, 1999. - S. 101-122.
      99. Giddens A. Sociology / Per. England. V. Malashenko, E. Kryukova etc. Nauchn. Ed. VA poison. - Moscow: Editorial URSS, 1999. - 704 pp.
      100. Boris Godunov Speech before иноземцами (December 13, 1601) / / Anthology of world political thought: 5 tons - Vol III. Political thought in Russia: X - the first half of the XIX century. / Nat. obschestv.-science. Fund. Acad. policy. science; Project Manager G. Yu Semigin etc. - Moscow: Mysl, 1997. - S. 258.
      101. Golubev AV World Republic or closed society: the Soviet Union in 1920, 1930 / / Russia and the modern world. - 2003. - Љ 3. - S. 123-146.
      102. Golts A. Fields tensions: the interaction of cultural and economic factors / / Global Community: The mapping of post-World / Comp. and TOB. Ed. AI Neklessa etc. - M.: Eastern. lit., 2002. - S. 417-431.
      103. Grosul V. History of Russia: the disintegration and reunion / / Russia in the XX Century: Problems of National Relations. - M.: Nauka, 1999. - S. 145-154.
      104. L. Gudkov Communal hole / / Knowledge - force. - 2001. - Љ 11. - S. 59-63.
      105. Gulyga AV Russian idea and its creators. - M.: Eksmo, 2003. - 448 pp.
      106. Gurova T. Children destruction / / Expert. - M., 2001. - Љ 23 (283). - P.58-68.
      107. Dal VI Proverbs Russian people: the Collection of proverbs, sayings, spoken, saying, patter, pribautok, riddles, beliefs, etc. - T. 1-2. - SPb.: Publication suppliers Court of His Imperial Majesty the Association MO Wolf, 1904. - 276 pp.
      108. Danilevskiy N.Ya. Russia and Europe: A look at the cultural and political relations Slavic world to the German-Roman. - 6 th eds / Preface Η. Η. Strakhov article KN-Bestuzheva Ryumina; drafting, introduction and commentary A. Galaktionov. - SPb.: Publishing, St. Petersburg University, the publishing house verb, 1995. - 552 pp.
      109. Derlugyan, under dlan Empire / / Expert. - 2004. - Љ 12 (413). - S. 77-83.
      110. Diligensky GG Browse the middle class. - Moscow: Inst. Fund Public Opinion, 2002. - 285 pp.
      111. Dostoevsky FM Demons / / Full. SOBR. cit.: 30 tons - Т.10. - L.: Nauka, 1974. - S. 198-199.
      112. Dostoevsky FM Teen / / Full. SOBR. cit.: 30 tons - Vol.13. - L.: Nauka, 1975. - 455 pp.
      113. Dudchenko O., Mytil A. Two models of adaptation to social change / / Russia: transforming society / Ed. VA poison. - Moscow: Kanon-Press-Ts, 2001. - S. 609-620.
      114. Dyachkov VL on our place in the sun, or that it is wrong for and unconsciously demographic behavior / / Social History: Yearbook, 2000. - M.: ROSSPEN 2000. - S. 219-228.
      115. Durkheim E. On the division of labor. - Moscow: Kanon-Press-Ts, 1996.
      116. A: If the Middle Ages: World History in four volumes. - V. III. - Moscow: AST, 2000. - 690 pp.
      117. Erasov BS Speech to the fam. Sociocultural analysis methodology of Russian society, Љ 4. The theme of history as a phenomenon of culture / / Milestones. - 1996. - Љ 9. - S. 147-148.
      118. Erasov BS Civilization: versatile and identity / / BS Erasov; Ed. Ed. NN Zarubina. - M.: Nauka, 2002. - 524 pp.
      119. Zhikharev MI memorandum descendants of Peter Y. Chaadaeva / / Russian society of 30-ies of XIX century. People & Ideas: (Memoirs of contemporaries). - M.: MSU, 1989. - S. 48-109.
      120. Zhukov D. Keys to three capitals / / VV Shulgin Three capital. - M.: Contemporary, 1991. - S. 398-496.
      121. Zaslavskaya TI Authorities in seeking support / / Knowledge - force. - 1999. - Љ 10 (880). - S. 26-29.
      122. Zemtsov LI district court in Russia 60-th - the first half of the 70-ies of the XIX century: (based on the central Chernozem). - Voronezh, 2002. - 448 pp.
      123. Zenkovsky V. History of Russian Philosophy: The 2 tons - Vol.1. - Rostov-na-Donu: Feniks, 1999. - 544 pp.
      124. Zinovyev AA West. - M.: Tsentrpoligraf, 2000. - 509 pp.
      125. Ilyin IA Severe Russian nationalism and the job / / Our goal. Historical destiny and future of Russia. Articles years 1948-1954: v. 2 - T. 1. Introduction. Article I. Smirnov. - M.: Rarog, 1992. - S. 283-290.
      126. Inglegard R. Modernization and postmodernizatsiya / / A new wave of post in the west: An Anthology, ed. VL Inozemtsev. - M.: Academia, 1999. - S. 261-291.
      127. Boris Kagarlitsky peripheral Empire: Russia and mirosistema / Boris Kagarlitsky. - M.: Ultra. Culture, 2004. - 528 pp.
      128. AP Kazhdan and Marxism podatnoy method (Reflections on the book: J. Holden. Podatnoy state and mode of production. - LA, New York, 1993) / / historical knowledge at the turn of the century: Sat. reviews and abstracts. / RAS. INION. Social Center. scientific inform. Issled.; Otd. otech. and abroad. history; Редкол.: Yastrebitskaya AL (Ch. Ed.), etc., - M., 2003. - S. 55-69.
      129. Kant I. Kant - Maria von Herbert (Spring 1792) / / treatises and letters. Monuments of philosophical thought. - M.: Nauka, 1980. - S. 582-585.
      130. Kantor VK ... There is a European power. Russia: a difficult path to civilization: Istoriosofskie essays. - M.: ROSSPEN, 1997. - 479 pp.
      131. Kantor VK Russian European culture as a phenomenon: Philosophical and Historical Analysis. - M.: ROSSPEN, 2001. - 704 pp.
      132. Kaplina LM Globalization: a new perspective on world history, or search for an integrated methodology of historical knowledge? West European historiography of analysis: 80-90-ies of XX century. (Review-analytical review) / / historical knowledge at the turn of the century: Sat. Reviews and abstracts / / Russian Academy of Sciences. INION. - M., 2003. - (Ser.: Social and human sciences in the XX Century) - S. 19-54.
      133. Karamzin H. M. History of the Russian state (Репринтное QuickList publication years 1842-1844). - Book III. - T. XI. - Moscow: Kniga, 1989. - P. 1-183.
      134. Kara-Murza A. Liberalism against chaos (Basic intention of the liberal ideology in the West and in Russia) / / Between Empire, and distemper. Selected socio-philosophical journalism. - M.: IFRAN, 1996. - S. 36-50.
      135. Kara-Murza A. A. Between Empire, and distemper / / Between Empire, and distemper. Selected socio-philosophical journalism. - M.: IFRAN, 1996. - S. 88-92.
      136. Kara-Murza A. A. Creation of Russia. Labyrinths of national identity / / between Empire and turmoil. Selected socio-philosophical journalism. - M.: IFRAN, 1996. - S. 51 - 66.
      137. Kara-Murza A. A. What is the Russian zapadnichestvo? / / In the Empire, and distemper. Selected socio-philosophical journalism. - M.: IFRAN, 1996. - S. 5-20.
      138. Kara-Murza AA Creation Russia. Labyrinths of national identity / / Between Empire, and distemper. Selected socio-philosophical journalism. - M.: IFRAN, 1996. - S. 51-66.
      139. Karpukhin OI, Makarevich EF Formation Masses: The nature of public relations and technology, public relations: Experience of History and Sociology. study. - Kaliningrad: FGUIPP amber. tale, 2001. - 547 pp.
      140. Кассирер E. Experience on the man. Introduction to the philosophy of human culture / / favorite. The experience of man. - M.: Gardarika, 1998. - S. 440-723.
      141. Keller J. modernization - the humanization of society, or corrosion of life? Critical notes on the theory of modernization / Per. with чешск. I. Popov, NV Romanovskii / / Socis. - 2002. - Љ 7 (219). - S. 48-53.
      142. M. Kemal new path of Turkey. - T. III. The intervention of the Allies. Greco-Turkish War and the consolidation of the National Front for 1920-1921. - Moscow: State Socio-Economic Publishing House, 1934. - 460 pp.
      143. Kenigsberger GG Medieval Europe, 400-1500 years. / Per. England. A. A. Stolyarova; foreword. D. Haritonovicha. - Moscow: The World, 2001. - 384 pp.
      144. Kipling R. The burden of the White / / Favorites / Per. England. B. Toporova. - L.: Hood. lit., 1980. - S. 469-470.
      145. Kirdina SG institutional matrix and the development of Russia. - Novosibirsk: SB RAS IEiOPP, 2001. - 308 pp.
      146. Klyuchevsky VO Lecture LVIII (Kn. VV Golitsyn. The preparation and the reform program) / / Works: In 9 v. - V. III / Ed. VL Ianina; Poslesl. VA Aleksandrov, Коммент amounted VA Aleksandrov, VG Zimina. - Moscow: Mysl, 1990. - S. 331-342.
      147. Klyuchevsky VO Lecture XXVIII / / Compositions: 9 tons - Vol II / Ed. VL Ianina; Poslesl. VA Aleksandrov, Коммент. VA Aleksandrov, VG Zimina. - Moscow: Mysl, 1990. - S. 147-161.
      148. Klyuchevsky VO Peter the Great among its staff / / Compositions: In 9T. - T. VIII / Ed. VL Ianina; Poslesl. VA Aleksandrov, Коммент. VA Aleksandrov, VG Zimina. - Moscow: Mysl, 1990. - S. 375-408.
      149. Klyamkin I. Russian power on the Millennium / / Pro et Contra 1999. - Volume 4. - Љ 2. - C. 63-87.
      150. Kovalevskiy MM The Spirit of Laws / On Freedom: The Anthology of World of liberal thought (I half of XX century). - M.: Progress-Tradition, 2000. - S.413-490.
      151. Kozlov VA riots in the USSR under Khrushchev and Brezhnev (1953 - early 1980's.). - Novosibirsk: Siberian chronograph, 1999. - 416 pp.
      152. Kozyreva P., Gerasimov S., Kiseleva IP, Nazimova AE Dynamics social well-being of Russians / / Russia: transforming society / Ed. VA poison. - Moscow: Kanon-Press-Ts, 2001. - S. 243-256.
      153. Koivisto AM Russian idea / Per. with FY. S. Deryabina. - Moscow: The World, 2002. - 244 pp.
      154. Cola D. Political Sociology / Per. with fr. AI Kristalovskogo, Yu.A. Nemesheva, AA, Tarasevich Skrylnikova; foreword. AB Hoffman. - Moscow: The world, INFRA-M, 2001. - 406 pp.
      155. Kondakov IV Mechanisms repeatability in the history of Russian culture / / The Art of the situation changing cycles: Interdisciplinary aspects of artistic culture in the transition process. - M.: Nauka, 2002. - S. 269-283.
      156. Korotetsky Yu, M. Rubchenko No chance of success / / Expert. - 2004. - Љ 3. - S. 14-19.
      157. Kosarev AF Philosophy of Myth: Mythology and its heuristic significance: A manual for high schools. - Moscow: PER SE, St. Petersburg.: University Book, 2000. - 304 pp.
      158. K. West Kouker Dusk / Per. England. AA Arzumanova. - Moscow: Moscow School of Political Studies, 2000. - 272 pp.
      159. Kravchenko II Upgrade today's Russia / / Etatistskie model of modernization. - M.: IFRAN, 2002. - S. 6-30.
      160. Krupina T. The theory of modernization and development of some of the problems Russia late XIX - early XX century. / / History of the USSR. - M., 1971. - Љ 1. - S. 191-205.
      161. Kryshtanovskaya OV business elite and the oligarchs: the outcome of a decade / / World of Russia. - M., 2002. - Volume XI - Љ 4. - S. 3-60.
      162. Kulpin E. Rus between East and West / Series Sotsioestestvennaya history. The genesis of the crises of nature and society in Russia . - Vol. XVIII. - Moscow: Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2001. - 232 pp.
      163. Kushner A. The Times did not choose / / poems / foreword. DS Likhachev. - L.: Hood. lit., 1986. - S. 22-23.
      164. Landes D. Culture explains almost everything / / Culture matters. How is the value contributed to social progress / Per. with anl. Ed. L. Harrison and S. Huntington. - M.: Moscow School of Political Studies, 2002. - S. 38-54.
      165. Lappo-Danilevskiy A. The history of Russian social thought and culture of XVII - XVIII centuries. - M.: Nauka, 1990. - 293 pp.
      166. Лафарг P. Thomas Campanella / Ed D. Ryazanova. - M. - L.: Gosizdat, 1926. - 102 pp.
      167. Le Goff J. From heaven to earth (The changes in the values at the Christian West, XII-XIII cc.) / Per. with the French. SN Golubev / / Odyssey. Man in History. - M.: Nauka, 1991. - S. 25-47.
      168. Le Goff J. medieval Western Civilization: Hardcover. with fr. / Total. Ed. YL Immortal; Poslesl. A.Ya. Gurevich. - Moscow: Progress, Progress-Academy, 1992. - 376 pp.
      169. Levy brulee L. Prehistoric thinking / / Religion and Society: Хрестоматия on the sociology of religion / Comp VI Garaja, ED Rutkevich. - M.: Aspect Press, 1996. - S. 252-259.
      170. Levin I. Tab. in this.: Sociocultural methodology for the analysis of Russian society. Subject: Modernization of traditional lifestyles: the Italian experience and its meaning for Russia / / Milestones. - 1997. - Љ 7. - S. 140-147.
      171. Levinson A. Russian pendulum. In the free market and all-pervasive control / / Expert. - 1998. - Љ 32. - S. 16-17.
      172. KN Leont'ev Vizantizm and Slavdom / / East, Russia and Slavdom. Philosophical and political journalism. Spiritual Prose (1872-1891) / Sost. and коммент. GB flint; Introduction. Art. and коммент. VI Kosika. - Moscow: Republic, 1996. - S. 94-155.
      173. KN Leont'ev twenty-Reign / / East, Russia and Slavdom: Philosophical and political journalism. Spiritual Prose (1872-1891) / Sost. and коммент. GB flint; Introduction. Art. and коммент. VI Kosika. - Moscow: Republic, 1996. - S. 225-226.
      174. KN Leont'ev Religion - the cornerstone of health / / East, Russia and Slavdom: Philosophical and political journalism. Spiritual Prose (1872-1891) / Sost. and коммент. GB flint; Introduction. Art. and коммент. VI Kosika. - Moscow: Republic, 1996. - S. 222-224.
      175. Litavrin G. Political Theory in Byzantium in the mid-VII before the beginning of the XIII century. / / Culture of Byzantium: The second half of VII-XII. - M.: Nauka, 1989. - 680 pp.
      176. Lomonosov, MV (Preservation and reproduction of the Russian people) / / Selected. production. - Arkhangelsk: North-West. kn. izd-vo, 1980. - S. 131-148.
      177. MV Lomonosov word commendable blissful state memory Emperor Peter the Great, speaking April 26 days in 1755 / / Selected. production.: v. 2 - 2. - M.: Nauka, 1986. - S. 244-263.
      178. Losev, AF Searching for meaning / / Questions literature. - 1985. - Љ 10. - S. 205-231.
      179. Losev AF Medieval dialectician / / Name: essays and translations / Comp. and total. Ed. AA Tahoe-Godi. - SPb.: Aletheia, 1997. - S. 246-308.
      180. Lossky N. History of Russian Philosophy. - M.: Sov. writer, 1991. - 479 pp.
      181. Lotman Yu.M. Echo of Moscow - the Third Rome in the ideology of Peter the Great / / Selected articles from: vol III - T. III. - Tallinn: Aleksandra, 1993 - pp 201-212.
      182. Lotman Yu.M. Symbolism of St. Petersburg and the problem of semiotics city / / Selected articles from: vol III - T. II. - Tallinn: Aleksandra, 1992. - S. 9-21.
      183. Lotman YM, Uspenskiy BA dual role in models of the dynamics of Russian culture (before the end of XVIII century) / / BA Uspenskiy Selected Works in two volumes. - Moscow: Gnosis, 1994. - Volume I. - S. 219-253.
      184. Lukyanova TN, slaughter T., Adelman J. L. Economic Reform in Russia: cultural barriers / / Russia: transforming society / Ed. VA poison. - Moscow: Kanon-Press-Ts, 2001. - S. 123-143.
      185. Luman N. Theory Society / / Theory of Society: Collected / Per. with it., pp. / Introduction. article status. and general ed. AF Filippov. - Moscow: Canon Press Y, Kuchkova field, 1999. - S. 196-235.
      186. Lunacharsky A. Letters from the West / / In the West, - M. - L.: Gos. Izdat. 1927. - S. 7-61.
      187. Lurye SV Historical Ethnology. - Moscow: The Academic Project, 1997. - 446 pp.
      188. Luhmanov D. The evolution of rural settlement in the first half of XX century / / The town and village in European Russia: One hundred years of change: Monografich. Sat. - Moscow: OGI, 2001. - S. 225-239.
      189. Lykoshina LS Leszek Balcerowicz - the father of Polish economic reform / / Political leaders and the strategy of reform in Eastern Europe: Sat. review and ref. / RAS. INION. Center of scientific-inform. Issled. global and regional problems, Ed. Ed. Shanshieva LN - M., 2003. - S. 76-110.
      190. Mannheim K. Essays on the sociology of knowledge: The problem of generations - the competition - economic ambitions / Per. England. EY Dodin. - M.: INION Russian Academy of Sciences, 2000. - 164 pp.
      191. Mandel'shtam O. Peter Chaadaev. / / Apollo. - 1915. - Љ 6-7. -P. 57-62.
      192. Mandelshtam OE We live by themselves do not chuya country / / Works: v. 2 - Vol 1. Poems / Comp. P. Nerlera; Introduction. stat. S. Averintsev. - M.: Hood. lit., 1990. - S. 197.
      193. Mann T. Culture and Politics / / The Artist and Society: Articles and letters / Peer to it. S. APTA. - Moscow: Raduga, 1986. - S. 70-75.
      194. Mann T. The fate and challenge: Articles and letters / Peer to it. S. APTA. - Moscow: Raduga, 1986. - S. 134-148.
      195. Mann T. The Artist and Society / / The Artist and Society: Articles and letters / Peer to it. S. APTA. - Moscow: Raduga, 1986. - S. 197-207.
      196. Mardari B., I. Mardari Destinies / / Knowledge - force. - 2001. - Љ 9. - S. 34.
      197. Marx K. The Eighteenth bryumera Louis Bonaparte. - M.: Politizdat, 1987. - 140 pp.
      198. Martin J. Social measurement of transformation and modernization: the theoretical lessons of empirical research / Per. with fr. NV Romanovskii / / Socis. - 2002. - Љ 8 (220). - S. 56-64.
      199. Matez A. French Revolution. - T. III. Terror / Per. with fr. S. Loseva; Prev. NM Lunina. - Moscow: Moscow workshop, 1930. - 208 pp.
      200. Mau VA Economic reform: through the prism of the Constitution and policies. - Moscow: Editorial URSS, 1999. - 239 pp.
      201. Makhonin P., Kuharzh P., Muller K., Tuchek M. Gatnar L., J. Chervenkov transformation and modernization of the Czech society. Modernization - the humanization of society or corrosion life? / / Socis. - 2002. - Љ 7 (219). - P.32-48.
      202. Between the VM problem of modernity in the context of modernization and globalization / / Etatistskie model of modernization. - M.: IFRAN, 2002. - S. 138-153.
      203. Merezhkovsky DS head hangs / / Patient Russia. - St. Petersburg: Public benefits, 1910. - S. 79-92.
      204. Merezhkovsky DS Land mouth / / Patient Russia. - St. Petersburg: Public benefits, 1910. - S. 249-265.
      205. Merezhkovsky D. L. Tolstoy and Dostoevsky / / L. Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky. Eternal satellites. - Moscow: Republic, 1995. - P. 5-350.
      206. Milyukov PN Memoirs (1859 - 1917). - T. 2. - M.: Contemporary, 1990. - 444 pp.
      207. Milyukov PN Essays on the History of Russian Culture: The 3 tons - Vol.1, ch.1-2. - M: Progress, Culture, Revision newspaper Trud, 1993. - 528 pp.
      208. Milyukov PN Essays on the History of Russian Culture: The 3 tons - vol.2, ch.1. - M: Progress, Culture, 1994. - 416 pp.
      209. Milyukov PN Essays on the History of Russian Culture: The 3 tons - vol.2, part 2. - Moscow: Progress, Culture, 1994. - 496 pp.
      210. Mironov, BN Social History of Russia Empire period (XVIII - beginning of XX century.): 2 v. - V. 1. - SPb.: Dmitry Bulanin. - 548 pp.
      211. Modernization challenges and Russian alternatives: Materials Round table in the International. societies. fund socio-economic. Studies (Gorbachev Foundation), April 25, 2001. / / World of Russia. Sociology, ethnology. - T. H. - M., 2001. - Љ 4. - S. 3-22.
      212. Mozheiko MA Eidos / / History of Philosophy: The Encyclopedia. - Mn.: Interpresservis; Book House, 2002. - S. 1299-1300.
      213. Muratov P. Images of Italy. - V. I.: Venice. - The road to Florence. - Florence. - Towns of Tuscany. - 3rd ed. - Moscow: Scientific word, MCMXVII. - 269 pp.
      214. Population and Globalization / NM Rimashevskaya, VF Galetsky, A. A. Ovsiannikov etc. - M: Nauka, 2002. - 322 pp.
      215. The population of Russia 2000: Eighth annual. demographic. Abstr. / Ed. AG Vishnevsky. - Moscow: University Book House, 2001. - 176 pp.
      216. Neklessa AI Russian project in the new coordinate system XXI century / / The global community: mapping of post-World / Comp. and TOB. Ed. AI Neklessa etc. - M.: Eastern. lit., 2002. - S.385-416.
      217. Neretina SS Trail and concepts. - M.: IFRAN, 1999. - 277 pp.
      218. Netreba P. Arkady Volsky left the legal field / / Kommersant. - 2003. - Љ 134, July 31. - S. 2.
      219. Nikitina NA On Russian sorcerer / / B. Dahl et al Russian witchcraft. - M.: Eksmo; SPb.: Terra Fantastica, 2002. - S. 364-395.
      220. Novgorodians PI BN Chicherin / / The scientific word. - SPb., 1904. - Љ 3. - S. 116-120.
      221. Novgorodians PI right idea in philosophy VS Solov'eva / / Novgorodians PI On the social ideals. - Moscow: Press, 1991. - S. 525-539.
      222. Novgorodians P. Lectures on the History of Philosophy of Law / / Novgorodians PI Compositions. / Sost. Entered. Art. MA Kolerova, NS Plotnikova. - M.: Raritet, 1995. - S. 15-234.
      223. Novikova LI, Sizemskaya I. Three models of the development of Russia. - M.: IFRAN, 2000. - 272 pp.
      224. Neumann E. The origin and development of consciousness / Per. England. AP Khomik. - M.: Refl-Beech, K.: Vakler, 1998. - 464 pp.
      225. Public opinion in Russia: report on results of research in 2000 - 2001 biennium. (Sost. AV Milekhin, NP Popov). - M.: Izd-vo Mosk. Un-ta, 2001. - 616 pp.
      226. Explanatory memorandum proposed by the faction RSDRP (o) to the legislative proposal on the regulatory bodies of the national economy and the labor and supply the army and the people / / Menshevik, 1917: In the 3 tons / A total. Ed. Z. Galili, A. Nenarokova, L. Heymsona. - T. 3. Menshevik, 1917: From kornilovskogo rebellion before the end of December. - Part Two. From the Interim Council of the Russian Democratic Republic before the end of December (the first decade of October - December). - M.: ROSSPEN, 1997. - S. 178-181.
      227. Auger I. From the memories of the MS Lunin / / The Decembrists in the memoirs of contemporaries. - Moscow: Publishing House of Moscow in-ta., 1988. - S. 60-72.
      228. Orlova EA modernization as a global socio-cultural process / / Culture: New Approaches: Almanac-year number 10. - M: MGUKI, 2003. - S. 94-107.
      229. Orlova EA Sociocultural preconditions of modernization in Russia. Library in the Age of Change: Inform. Sat. (Digest). - Vol. 2 (10). - Moscow: Russian State Library, 2001. - S. 7-42.
      230. Ortega and Gasset, J. In Search of Goethe / Aesthetics. Philosophy of Culture / Per. with sp. AB Matveyeva. - Moscow: Art, 1991. - S. 433-462.
      231. Pavlov-Silvanskaya NP feudalism in Russia / Ed. Ed. S. Schmidt. - M.: Nauka, 1988. - 696 pp.
      232. P. M. P. (Mih. Veltman) imperialism and the struggle for the great rail and sea routes the future: (On the causes of World War II). Kn. 1. Part 2. - 2 nd ed. Ext. - M. - Pg.: Book publishing Communist, 1919. - 179 pp.
      233. Payman A. History of Russian Symbolism / authorizes. trans. Per. England. VV Isakovich. - Moscow: Republic, 2000. - 415s.
      234. Pipes R. Russia under the Bolsheviks / Per. England. NI Kigali, MD Timenchik. - M.: PAINTINGS, 1997. - 662 pp.
      235. Pipes R. Russia under the old regime / Per. England. B. Kozlovsky. - Moscow: Nezavisimaya Gazeta, 1993. - 423 pp.
      236. Pipes R. Russian revolution. - Part 1 / Per. England. MD Timenchika. - M.: ROSSSPEN, 1994. - 397 pp.
      237. Pipes R. Struve: right Liberals, 1905-1944. - T. 2. Pec. of Ed.: Richard Pipes. Struve: Liberal on the Right, 1905-1944. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England, 1980 / Per. England. Zakharova. - Moscow: Mosk. School of Political. Studies th, 2002. - 440 pp.
      238. Paleolog M. Imperial Russia before the Revolution / Per. with fr. D. Protopopova, F. Gay. - M. - Pg.: Gosizdat, 1923. - 472 pp.
      239. Pantin VI, Lapkin VV Values of Russians in the 90's / / Pro et Contra. - 1999. - Volume 4. - Љ 2. - S. 144-160.
      240. Panchenko AM Russian culture on the eve of the reforms of Peter the Great / Ed. Ed. Likhachev. - L.: Nauka, 1984. - 204 pp.
      241. Paramonov B. Therefore, as a bourgeois / / End of the style. - St. Petersburg: Aletheia, - M.: AGRAF,
      1999. - S. 91-106.
      242. Parsons T. Essays social system / / A social systems / Per. England. A. Harrasha; Ed. VF Chesnokov and SA Belanovskogo. - Moscow: The Academic Project, 2002. - S. 543-686.
      243. Pelipenko AA, Yakovenko IG Culture as a system. - Moscow: Languages of Russian Culture, 1998. - 376 pp.
      244. Pelipenko AA, Yakovenko IG drunkenness / / Man. -1997. - N 2. - S. 126-135.
      245. Pecherin VS Excuse my life. Memoranda / / Our Heritage. - M., 1989. - Љ I. - S. 61-77.
      246. Platonov SF Moscow and the West in the XVI-XVII centuries / / Moscow and the West in the XVI-XVII centuries. Boris Godunov. - M.: Bogorodsky printer, 1999. - S. 21-142.
      247. Plekhanov GV History of Russian Social Thought: A Book 3. - М.-Л.: Gos. Izdat. 1925, kn. 1.
      248. Polo M. The book is the diversity of the world / foreword. X. L. Borges, Per. with starofrants. I. Minaev. - SPb.: Amfora, 1999. - 381c.
      249. Anointed A. H., Sedunova AV, poisons E. Social resource person and the identity orientation of Russians / / Socis. - M., 2002. - Љ 12. - S. 122-129.

  • © Copyright Gavrov Sergey Nazipovich (
  • Обновлено: 23/05/2009. 546k. Статистика.
  • Монография: Политика

  • Связаться с программистом сайта.